Best Binary Options Brokers 2020 - Platforms & Reviews

What is a binary option?

What is a Binary Option? How do you trade? What are the profit opportunities that can be obtained? Binary Options first appeared in the United States, which is now increasingly popular throughout the world.

Binary Option (BO) is a type of trading originating from the United States that is optional (option) which means choosing between two possibilities. Before you enter and speculate on playing Binary Options, you must understand that in one open trade (entry) you will only have two options, according to the name of the type of trading that is binary which means two conditions. You will have the opportunity to make as much profit as previously promised, or you will lose the amount of capital according to what has been determined.
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What Is A Binary Options Trading System

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What are Binary Options Robots, and is it a Scam?

What are Binary Options Robots, and is it a Scam? submitted by emadbably to OptionsInvestopedia [link] [comments]

A friend of mine who's afab non-binary is looking to find some means of deepening their voice a little without fully transitioning. What sort of options are there for this kind of thing?

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Jonathan Chait: ""Binary" is so grating. What about something softer, like "Sophie's"?" -- Josh Dawsey: "WH considering new separation policy called "binary choice" that gives migrant parents option of remaining detained as a family or agreeing to separation so child would not remain in custody."

Jonathan Chait: submitted by therecordcorrected to democrats [link] [comments]

04-15 13:54 - 'It is possible to recover bitcoin lost to scam or binary options. I engaged the services of a hacker and he helped me. His info is recbtc17 at gmail dot com or text/whats app +15187224413' by /u/anthwell7 removed from /r/Bitcoin within 29-39min

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It is possible to recover bitcoin lost to scam or binary options. I engaged the services of a hacker and he helped me. His info is recbtc17 at gmail dot com or text/whats app +15187224413
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Context Link
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Author: anthwell7
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Did you loose money to bogus binary options broker and you wish to recover it back? The solution is here as I was able to refer three of my clients to a recovery expert who helped them recover their money. Feel free to contact me so I can enlighten you on what to do. Konner,[email protected],com

Did you loose money to bogus binary options broker and you wish to recover it back? The solution is here as I was able to refer three of my clients to a recovery expert who helped them recover their money. Feel free to contact me so I can enlighten you on what to do. Konner,coinex@gmail,com submitted by Leonardfordc to binary_options [link] [comments]

KIMEX.IO offers up to 85% payouts, one of the highest payouts in the binary options market. WHAT IS BINARY OPTION Binary options are a simple way to trade price fluctuations in multiple global markets, but a trader needs to understand the risks and rewards of these often-misunderstood instruments.

https://www.kimex.io/ #Kimex #BinaryOption #Blockchain #cryptocurrency

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Liked on YouTube: what is binary trading and how does it work - what are binary options robots, and is it a scam?

Liked on YouTube: what is binary trading and how does it work - what are binary options robots, and is it a scam? submitted by TradingStrategys to TopTradingStrategys [link] [comments]

Liked on YouTube: what is binary trading and how does it work - are binary options a scam ?

Liked on YouTube: what is binary trading and how does it work - are binary options a scam ? submitted by TradingStrategys to TopTradingStrategys [link] [comments]

What is the preferred 3rd (non-binary) option for gender on a survey?

I am adding a user information form in my iPhone app, and one data point I need to ask the users for is gender.
I am having a hard time figuring out the LGBT+ community's preferred option on a survey when asked. about gender.
Normally I see "male/female/other" but it occurred to me that "other" might not be the best option, though it seems like the most logical and non-offensive option to me.
Someone else suggested "plus", but I have never heard that, and the term sounds confusing to me.
Thanks!
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What is Binary Options Trading and would anyone here recommend it to a beginner?

I've been reading up on Binary Options Trading (including this ELI5 page) but I'm still a little skeptical. There are people who make it seem like it's all very "high-risk", no different from betting black or red on the craps table. And there are people who say it's "controlled risk", and that if you're willing to put in the research, you can make a lot of money. I think the truth is probably somewhere in the middle... but I'm wondering if anyone here has experience in binary options trading. Would you recommend it, and do you have any advice for a beginner? Thanks!
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What is a great online community to hang out & talk about stocks & options, particularly binary options? This subreddit seems ok, but there aren't that many people apparently.

What the title says.
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What is r/investing opinion on binary options for a low fund, and new investor.

Like the title says, I am a new investor and have little funds ($1000) to start with and was looking at binary options to break my way into the market. What are the general opinions of binary options given my circumstance.
(Just to note I already have a 6 month emergency fund.)
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finances yahoo introduction

finances yahoo introduction
https://preview.redd.it/7oisne7ik4931.png?width=1280&format=png&auto=webp&s=34c4a8aac0c5aecc411c97899f252412dbb8d6b4
The instruments finance professionals use to display securities, collect statistics and analyze market intelligence are invaluable. Sadly they might be so costly that the person investor usually can't entry them; that’s the place Yahoo! Finance will help. Yahoo has a set of instruments that rival the skilled ones in order that people won't be at a drawback. To make use of these instruments there is a gigantic quantity of knowledge to undergo, so we have supplied information to assist steer customers to the highest instruments for buyers.
Rating of Prime Instruments
1. Stock Research Center: This software is probably the most complete, go-to web page on Yahoo! Finance for buyers. From right here, buyers can click on on hyperlinks to get data associated with firm earnings (dates, surprises, and so on.), analysts’ analysis (firm analysis, improve/downgrades, sector evaluation), firm studies (annual, quarterly, all SEC filings), monetary calendars (inventory splits, IPOs, M&A, financial information) and analysis instruments (screeners, historic or actual time quotes) for shares, bonds, mutual funds and choices.
Let's stroll by means of the steps to get began. First, you choose the "Market Knowledge" hyperlink on the left aspect of the house web page, then you definitely scroll down 3/four of the way in which until you see the "Extra-Market Stats" field on the proper, then choose the "Inventory Analysis Middle".

Read also this important information.

As soon as that web page hundreds, you'll be able to choose from amongst all of the classes. For instance, if seeing which firms are reporting earnings at the moment, choose "Firm Earnings" then "Earnings Dates." Or in case you are searching for worth tendencies, choose the hyperlink for "Historic Quotes" to get costs for a selected timeframe.
2. My Portfolio (NOTE: It's important to have a Yahoo account to enter this, because it requires you to log in): After using all of the assets supplied within the Inventory Analysis Middle, "My Portfolio" is maybe the following most useful gizmo. It permits buyers to trace portfolios or securities of curiosity, customise the display view, select fields primarily based on investor curiosity, similar to valuation metrics, estimates and worth actions, amongst others. It even permits buyers to enter the variety of shares bought and the acquisition worth to trace positive factors or losses. Not solely can buyers preserve present data, Yahoo! Finance turns that checklist of tickers into the information feeds for customers, tailoring which information tales the person receives primarily based on the tickers within the portfolios. Lastly, the software permits customers to sync up with different websites to their precise portfolios.
Let's undergo an instance. The next shares are in a portfolio: American Airways (AAL), Basic Electrical (GE) and Apple (AAPL). To Monitor, these names, first choose "My Portfolio" on the left aspect of the house web page. From the "My Portfolio" web page choose "Create New."

The web page opens to permit entry of a portfolio title, ticker symbols, market indices and permits for the choice of which inventory traits are of curiosity to view (it's routinely set to default). This display additionally permits linkage to brokerage accounts.

As you'll be able to see the output display gives a straightforward approach to observe all investments within the portfolio and on the backside within the "Current Information" part, the information tales are immediately associated to the shares within the portfolio.
3. Market Data: This part covers each asset class and gives a fast look of the present market - from the efficiency of varied indices, to inventory movers, to an index declineadvancer warmth map - giving buyers a whole general image of the buying and selling day. To get to this web page, choose "Market Knowledge" on the left aspect of the house web page. (We did this beforehand when accessing the Inventory Analysis Middle).
The Backside Line
Skilled funding instruments are usually out of attaining of the person investor, however, through the use of the instruments hosted by Yahoo! Finance, people can intelligently analysis and observe securities.
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Welcome to the official Binary.com subreddit

Welcome!

Hi everyone! Welcome to the official Binary.com subreddit. Take a look around, ask us a question, and start a discussion about anything and everything related to Binary.com  
The aim of this subreddit is to provide a safe and thriving discussion space for traders, investors, developers, partners, and just about anyone who’s interested in binary options trading and its underlying technology.  
We’ll be posting news and updates, especially about our upcoming ICO, and we’d love to see you share your thoughts, ideas, and relevant links that you think might interest the community.  

Who is Binary.com?

Binary.com (formerly BetOnMarkets.com) is the pioneer in online binary options trading. We started out in 2000 to make binary options –– also known as fixed-odds financial trading –– easily available to ordinary investors worldwide. Before we came onto the scene, binary options were typically traded only in large quantities.  
In 2016, we ventured into Forex and CFD trading with the MetaTrader 5 platform. In May 2017, we added cryptocurrencies to the list of tradable assets on our MT5 platform, starting with BTC/USD. This was followed by ETH/USD and LTC/USD a month later.  

What is a binary option?

A binary option is one of the simplest financial instruments around. It has a fixed payout and only two possible outcomes.  
A binary option is commonly known by these unique attributes:

Useful links

P.S. Check out the sidebar for more useful links!
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((+New-Method+)) Trading. Binary. options. strategies: Learn the. best. binary. strategies.

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Why Playing Main Tank is so Miserable Right Now

Main tank here for the last 10+ seasons, main Rein. I’ve been trying to figure out why it feels so terrible right now, even with CC toned down.
What I feel is that the massive amounts of damage in this game, matched by the massive amount of healing, has taken away a lot of the ability of a main tank to manage personal HP as a resource.
One of the basic things I’ve always kept in mind as rein is safely facetanking damage, utilizing the 200 points of armor to reduce damage taken, and allowing that to be healed up. 300 hp has been my mental “safe spot” for judging my aggression.
Lately, however, I find that even at full HP, I can never feel safe even just firestriking without the risk of going to extremely low HP or even dying.
What I’ve sort of realized is that this mid-ground health doesn’t even really exist anymore. It feels like you are either being pocketed at full hp, or you’re dead, and there’s extremely little time in between.
Once I noticed this, I thought “hey, maybe I’m just bad” so in the main tank streams I watch (super and cloneman, for example) I paid special attention to their health totals throughout games, and I noticed a very similar pattern. They would spend the majority of the time either above 400 hp while getting healed, or would immediately drop to roughly 100 hp, where either they’d have to get hard pocketed back to full or die.
I think that the damage and healing creep has removed an entire tool (health management) from the tank role, leaving them more reliant on healers than ever before.
Specifically, the idea of “facetanking” damage is just too risky now. I can’t alternate my health pool and my shield because there is too high a risk of getting bursted down even within short moments.
I think DPS aren’t made as miserable by this because they’re naturally squishy, and by nature don’t want to be focused by multiple members of the enemy team, whereas with tanks that’s your base job.
This also leads into CC feeling even worse because the short stun of a cree flashbang is absolutely enough time to get burst down without a bubble or pocket.
I also think this is why double-shield is so prevalent, as a symptom of the fact that, with regard to HP pools, the idea of taking “safe amounts” of damage isn’t reliable, and so the best option is to take no hp damage at all, by only playing behind shield where it’s impossible to get burst without the warning of the shield breaking, and to have fortify/suck to keep you from being burst when that shield does go down.
I guess basically, how I’d describe the problem I’m witnessing is that the damage and healing creep have made tanks feel far too squishy because of an inability to utilize the middle ranges of HP.
As for solutions, I’m not sure the best option, outside of something like a % nerf to both damage and healing across the board, which obviously is an oversimplified solution, but something needs to be done imo to make tank hp pools relevant and not feel like quite such an alive/dead binary.
Welcome thoughts, and for now, you can find me queueing support.
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Wealthy Wheat Trader Review By William Fleming's System Software Is A Scam?

Wealthy Wheat Trader Review By William Fleming's System Software Is A Scam?
Wealthy Wheat Trader Review By William Fleming Is Wealthy Wheat Trader Scam Or Legit? Discover The Real Truth in My Wealthy Wheat Trader Review.
Wealthy wheat trader William Fleming has made his millions and looking to give back to those who walk in the same shoes he once did.
See William has “cracked the code” on trading a single commodity (wheat) and spent a huge chunk of his earnings developing a very unique system to automate all that work for him. After development and a lot of fine tuning he took his average trading days and turned them into MASSIVE daily earnings.
After making millions exploiting the system he is now looking to pass this out to others to use really with no catch or expense on their part.
Go here and decide if it is something you may want to take advantage of.
Product Name: Wealthy Wheat Trader
Wealthy Wheat Trader Website: wealthywheatTrader.co
Wealthy Wheat Trader CEO: William Fleming
Wealthy Wheat Trader Cost: FREE
Wealthy Wheat Trader Review
Imagine someone creating an automated app that earns you thousands daily trading one commodity! William Fleming did just that and proves that his idea to focus ONLY on trading wheat is a proven winner simply because of supply and demand.
Over and over again he’s proven with even the most novice users ANYBODY can earn sizable income using his Wealthy Wheat Trader system CLICK HERE TO CLAIM WEALTHY WHEAT TRADER BONUS
The stock has become the first thing that comes to people’s minds when you hear words such as Wall Street, money and business, markets, etc. The idea of ​​the stock, in essence, a unique and attractive idea; you can own part of the company without having to buy them all. Romanian Empire days ago people were investing in companies and in the transfer of shares between the various parties. With the advent of modern technology, the sale and purchase of shares became available to the public, no longer need people because they are aristocrats Romanians to be able to trade shares, and was able to anyone owning the stock.
With the dawn of the twentieth century telegraph devices it has emerged bringing you can know exactly the performance of your stocks. These days you do not need to telegraph to trade shares. But you do not even need to buy the stock anymore to reap profits if they are the only winner. Instead, you can buy a binary option for the shares with Wealthy Wheat Trader Software.
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What is the binary option for stocks?
The binary options depends in essence on the existence of an asset. Which may be gold, oil, Forex coupling such as EUR / USD or shares may be. Wealthy Wheat Trader System offers a variety of European equities, Asian and American to be able to invest in Wealthy Wheat Trader. Whether you prefer technology stocks such as Google and Apple, or financial stocks such as Barkley and Chase, our platform has created the perfect solution to invest in binary options for shares.
Are there any special strategies for the option of trading stocks?
The binary options trading of the shares does not require your strategy different from that used for the regular trading binary options strategy. Whether you are interested in trading intensively or follow a different way of trading, your strategy in the binary options trading you do not need to be different. For more information about The Apple Stock Robot Trading Strategies
As is the case in other business operations, knowledge of the market and understand the nature of the asset in which it invests is recommended before you put your investment. Where that knowledge will be issued when certain companies reporting profits and other major events on the timelines necessary for companies trading in binary options for shares process. For example, if Apple plans to announce a new version of the iPhone, investing in binary option for stocks at that time it may be profitable. Or if you know that the company is suffering from a difficult quarter, the investment at a time when the company issued its earnings report may also be profitable. (Remember: You can invest in binary option for the share price to fall and even that happened already and the price fell, then you will profit!). Binary choices daily to keep you up to date with all the financial news.
With stocks that have existed for thousands of years, but the recent revolution brought with it binary options. Through investment in projection of how the performance of stock prices in a certain period of time you can reap a high return through investment in knowledge.
Is Wealthy Wheat Trader Scam?
Wealthy Wheat Trader is Not a Scam! It’s The best Stock Options Trading System I have ever seen… Download Wealthy Wheat Trader Free now…
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Virtual Reality: Where it is and where it's going

VR is not what a lot of people think it is. It's not comparable to racing wheels, Kinect, or 3DTVs. It offers a shift that the game industry hasn't had before; a first of it's kind. I'm going to outline what VR is like today in despite of the many misconceptions around it and what it will be like as it grows. What people find to be insurmountable problems are often solvable.
What is VR in 2020?
Something far more versatile and far-reaching than people comprehend. All game genres and camera perspectives work, so you're still able to access the types of games you've always enjoyed. It is often thought that VR is a 1st person medium and that's all it can do, but 3rd person and top-down VR games are a thing and in various cases are highly praised. Astro Bot, a 3rd person platformer, was the highest rated VR game before Half-Life: Alyx.
Lets crush some misconceptions of 2020 VR:
So what are the problems with VR in 2020?
Despite these downsides, VR still offers something truly special. What it enables is not just a more immersive way to game, but new ways to feel, to experience stories, to cooperate or fight against other players, and a plethora of new ways to interact which is the beating heart of gaming as a medium.
To give some examples, Boneworks is a game that has experimental full body physics and the amount of extra agency it provides is staggering. When you can actually manipulate physics on a level this intimately where you are able to directly control and manipulate things in a way that traditional gaming simply can't allow, it opens up a whole new avenue of gameplay and game design.
Things aren't based on a series of state machines anymore. "Is the player pressing the action button to climb this ladder or not?" "Is the player pressing the aim button to aim down the sights or not?"
These aren't binary choices in VR. Everything is freeform and you can basically be in any number of states at a given time. Instead of climbing a ladder with an animation lock, you can grab on with one hand while aiming with the other, or if it's physically modelled, you could find a way to pick it up and plant it on a pipe sticking out of the ground to make your own makeshift trap where you spin it around as it pivots on top of the pipe, knocking anything away that comes close by. That's the power of physics in VR. You do things you think of in the same vain as reality instead of thinking inside the set limitations of the designers. Even MGSV has it's limitations with the freedom it provides, but that expands exponentially with 6DoF VR input and physics.
I talked about how VR could make you feel things. A character or person that gets close to you in VR is going to invade your literal personal space. Heights are possibly going to start feeling like you are biologically in danger. The idea of tight spaces in say, a horror game, can cause claustrophobia. The way you move or interact with things can give off subtle almost phantom-limb like feelings because of the overwhelming visual and audio stimulation that enables you to do things that you haven't experienced with your real body; an example being floating around in zero gravity in Lone Echo.
So it's not without it's share of problems, but it's an incredibly versatile gaming technology in 2020. It's also worth noting just how important it is as a non-gaming device as well, because there simply isn't a more suitably combative device against a world-wide pandemic than VR. Simply put, it's one of the most important devices you can get right now for that reason alone as you can socially connect with no distancing with face to face communication, travel and attend all sorts of events, and simply manage your mental and physical health in ways that the average person wishes so badly for right now.
Where VR is (probably) going to be in 5 years
You can expect a lot. A seismic shift that will make the VR of today feel like something very different. This is because the underlying technology is being reinvented with entirely custom tech that no longer relies on cell phone panels and lenses that have existed for decades.
That's enough to solve almost all the issues of the technology and make it a buy-in for the average gamer. In 5 years, we should really start to see the blending of reality and virtual reality and how close the two can feel
Where VR is (probably) going to be in 10 years
In short, as good as if not better than the base technology of Ready Player One which consists of a visor and gloves. Interestingly, RPO missed out on the merging of VR and AR which will play an important part of the future of HMDs as they will become more versatile, easier to multi-task with, and more engrained into daily life where physical isolation is only a user choice. Useful treadmills and/or treadmill shoes as well as haptic suits will likely become (and stay) enthusiast items that are incredible in their own right but due to the commitment, aren't applicable to the average person - in a way, just like RPO.
At this stage, VR is mainstream with loads of AAA content coming out yearly and providing gaming experiences that are incomprehensible to most people today.
Overall, the future of VR couldn't be brighter. It's absolutely here to stay, it's more incredible than people realize today, and it's only going to get exponentially better and more convenient in ways that people can't imagine.
submitted by DarthBuzzard to truegaming [link] [comments]

The Next Processor Change is Within ARMs Reach

As you may have seen, I sent the following Tweet: “The Apple ARM MacBook future is coming, maybe sooner than people expect” https://twitter.com/choco_bit/status/1266200305009676289?s=20
Today, I would like to further elaborate on that.
tl;dr Apple will be moving to Arm based macs in what I believe are 4 stages, starting around 2015 and ending around 2023-2025: Release of T1 chip Macbooks, release of T2 chip Macbooks, Release of at least one lower end model Arm Macbook, and transitioning full lineup to Arm. Reasons for each are below.
Apple is very likely going to switch to switch their CPU platform to their in-house silicon designs with an ARM architecture. This understanding is a fairly common amongst various Apple insiders. Here is my personal take on how this switch will happen and be presented to the consumer.
The first question would likely be “Why would Apple do this again?”. Throughout their history, Apple has already made two other storied CPU architecture switches - first from the Motorola 68k to PowerPC in the early 90s, then from PowerPC to Intel in the mid 2000s. Why make yet another? Here are the leading reasons:
A common refrain heard on the Internet is the suggestion that Apple should switch to using CPUs made by AMD, and while this has been considered internally, it will most likely not be chosen as the path forward, even for their megalithic giants like the Mac Pro. Even though AMD would mitigate Intel’s current set of problems, it does nothing to help the issue of the x86_64 architecture’s problems and inefficiencies, on top of jumping to a platform that doesn’t have a decade of proven support behind it. Why spend a lot of effort re-designing and re- optimizing for AMD’s platform when you can just put that effort into your own, and continue the vertical integration Apple is well-known for?
I believe that the internal development for the ARM transition started around 2015/2016 and is considered to be happening in 4 distinct stages. These are not all information from Apple insiders; some of these these are my own interpretation based off of information gathered from supply-chain sources, examination of MacBook schematics, and other indicators from Apple.

Stage1 (from 2014/2015 to 2017):

The rollout of computers with Apple’s T1 chip as a coprocessor. This chip is very similar to Apple’s T8002 chip design, which was used for the Apple Watch Series 1 and Series 2. The T1 is primarily present on the first TouchID enabled Macs, 2016 and 2017 model year MacBook Pros.
Considering the amount of time required to design and validate a processor, this stage most likely started around 2014 or 2015, with early experimentation to see whether an entirely new chip design would be required, or if would be sufficient to repurpose something in the existing lineup. As we can see, the general purpose ARM processors aren’t a one- trick pony.
To get a sense of the decision making at the time, let’s look back a bit. The year is 2016, and we're witnessing the beginning of stagnation of Intel processor lineup. There is not a lot to look forward to other than another “+” being added to the 14nm fabrication process. The MacBook Pro has used the same design for many years now, and its age is starting to show. Moving to AMD is still very questionable, as they’ve historically not been able to match Intel’s performance or functionality, especially at the high end, and since the “Ryzen” lineup is still unreleased, there is absolutely no benchmarks or other data to show they are worth consideration, and AMD’s most recent line of “Bulldozer” processors were very poorly received. Now is probably as good a time as any to begin experimenting with the in-house ARM designs, but it’s not time to dive into the deep end yet, our chips are not nearly mature enough to compete, and it’s not yet certain how long Intel will be stuck in the mud. As well, it is widely understood that Apple and Intel have an exclusivity contract in exchange for advantageous pricing. Any transition would take considerable time and effort, and since there are no current viable alternative to Intel, the in-house chips will need to advance further, and breaching a contract with Intel is too great a risk. So it makes sense to start with small deployments, to extend the timeline, stretch out to the end of the contract, and eventually release a real banger of a Mac.
Thus, the 2016 Touch Bar MacBooks were born, alongside the T1 chip mentioned earlier. There are good reasons for abandoning the piece of hardware previously used for a similar purpose, the SMC or System Management Controller. I suspect that the biggest reason was to allow early analysis of the challenges that would be faced migrating Mac built- in peripherals and IO to an ARM-based controller, as well as exploring the manufacturing, power, and performance results of using the chips across a broad deployment, and analyzing any early failure data, then using this to patch any issues, enhance processes, and inform future designs looking towards the 2nd stage.
The former SMC duties now moved to T1 includes things like
The T1 chip also communicates with a number of other controllers to manage a MacBook’s behavior. Even though it’s not a very powerful CPU by modern standards, it’s already responsible for a large chunk of the machine’s operation. Moving control of these peripherals to the T1 chip also brought about the creation of the fabled BridgeOS software, a shrunken-down watchOS-based system that operates fully independently of macOS and the primary Intel processor.
BridgeOS is the first step for Apple’s engineering teams to begin migrating underlying systems and services to integrate with the ARM processor via BridgeOS, and it allowed internal teams to more easily and safely develop and issue firmware updates. Since BridgeOS is based on a standard and now well-known system, it means that they can leverage existing engineering expertise to flesh out the T1’s development, rather than relying on the more arcane and specialized SMC system, which operates completely differently and requires highly specific knowledge to work with. It also allows reuse of the same fabrication pipeline used for Apple Watch processors, and eliminated the need to have yet another IC design for the SMC, coming from a separate source, to save a bit on cost.
Also during this time, on the software side, “Project Marzipan”, today Catalyst, came into existence. We'll get to this shortly.
For the most part, this Stage 1 went without any major issues. There were a few firmware problems at first during the product launch, but they were quickly solved with software updates. Now that engineering teams have had experience building for, manufacturing, and shipping the T1 systems, Stage 2 would begin.

Stage2 (2018-Present):

Stage 2 encompasses the rollout of Macs with the T2 coprocessor, replacing the T1. This includes a much wider lineup, including MacBook Pro with Touch Bar, starting with 2018 models, MacBook Air starting with 2018 models, the iMac Pro, the 2019 Mac Pro, as well as Mac Mini starting in 2018.
With this iteration, the more powerful T8012 processor design was used, which is a further revision of the T8010 design that powers the A10 series processors used in the iPhone 7. This change provided a significant increase in computational ability and brought about the integration of even more devices into T2. In addition to the T1’s existing responsibilities, T2 now controls:
Those last 2 points are crucial for Stage 2. Under this new paradigm, the vast majority of the Mac is now under the control of an in-house ARM processor. Stage 2 also brings iPhone-grade hardware security to the Mac. These T2 models also incorporated a supported DFU (Device Firmware Update, more commonly “recovery mode”), which acts similarly to the iPhone DFU mode and allows restoration of the BridgeOS firmware in the event of corruption (most commonly due to user-triggered power interruption during flashing).
Putting more responsibility onto the T2 again allows for Apple’s engineering teams to do more early failure analysis on hardware and software, monitor stability of these machines, experiment further with large-scale production and deployment of this ARM platform, as well as continue to enhance the silicon for Stage 3.
A few new user-visible features were added as well in this stage, such as support for the passive “Hey Siri” trigger, and offloading image and video transcoding to the T2 chip, which frees up the main Intel processor for other applications. BridgeOS was bumped to 2.0 to support all of these changes and the new chip.
On the macOS software side, what was internally known as Project Marzipan was first demonstrated to the public. Though it was originally discovered around 2017, and most likely began development and testing within later parts of Stage 1, its effects could be seen in 2018 with the release of iPhone apps, now running on the Mac using the iOS SDKs: Voice Recorder, Apple News, Home, Stocks, and more, with an official announcement and public release at WWDC in 2019. Catalyst would come to be the name of Marzipan used publicly. This SDK release allows app developers to easily port iOS apps to run on macOS, with minimal or no code changes, and without needing to develop separate versions for each. The end goal is to allow developers to submit a single version of an app, and allow it to work seamlessly on all Apple platforms, from Watch to Mac. At present, iOS and iPadOS apps are compiled for the full gamut of ARM instruction sets used on those devices, while macOS apps are compiled for x86_64. The logical next step is to cross this bridge, and unify the instruction sets.
With this T2 release, the new products using it have not been quite as well received as with the T1. Many users have noticed how this change contributes further towards machines with limited to no repair options outside of Apple’s repair organization, as well as some general issues with bugs in the T2.
Products with the T2 also no longer have the “Lifeboat” connector, which was previously present on 2016 and 2017 model Touch Bar MacBook Pro. This connector allowed a certified technician to plug in a device called a CDM Tool (Customer Data Migration Tool) to recover data off of a machine that was not functional. The removal of this connector limits the options for data recovery in the event of a problem, and Apple has never offered any data recovery service, meaning that a irreparable failure of the T2 chip or the primary board would result in complete data loss, in part due to the strong encryption provided by the T2 chip (even if the data got off, the encryption keys were lost with the T2 chip). The T2 also brought about the linkage of component serial numbers of certain internal components, such as the solid state storage, display, and trackpad, among other components. In fact, many other controllers on the logic board are now also paired to the T2, such as the WiFi and Bluetooth controller, the PMIC (Power Management Controller), and several other components. This is the exact same system used on newer iPhone models and is quite familiar to technicians who repair iPhone logic boards. While these changes are fantastic for device security and corporate and enterprise users, allowing for a very high degree of assurance that devices will refuse to boot if tampered with in any way - even from storied supply chain attacks, or other malfeasance that can be done with physical access to a machine - it has created difficulty with consumers who more often lack the expertise or awareness to keep critical data backed up, as well as the funds to perform the necessary repairs from authorized repair providers. Other issues reported that are suspected to be related to T2 are audio “cracking” or distortion on the internal speakers, and the BridgeOS becoming corrupt following a firmware update resulting in a machine that can’t boot.
I believe these hiccups will be properly addressed once macOS is fully integrated with the ARM platform. This stage of the Mac is more like a chimera of an iPhone and an Intel based computer. Technically, it does have all of the parts of an iPhone present within it, cellular radio aside, and I suspect this fusion is why these issues exist.
Recently, security researchers discovered an underlying security problem present within the Boot ROM code of the T1 and T2 chip. Due to being the same fundamental platform as earlier Apple Watch and iPhone processors, they are vulnerable to the “checkm8” exploit (CVE-2019-8900). Because of how these chips operate in a Mac, firmware modifications caused by use of the exploit will persist through OS reinstallation and machine restarts. Both the T1 and T2 chips are always on and running, though potentially in a heavily reduced power usage state, meaning the only way to clean an exploited machine is to reflash the chip, triggering a restart, or to fully exhaust or physically disconnect the battery to flush its memory. Fortunately, this exploit cannot be done remotely and requires physical access to the Mac for an extended duration, as well as a second Mac to perform the change, so the majority of users are relatively safe. As well, with a very limited execution environment and access to the primary system only through a “mailbox” protocol, the utility of exploiting these chips is extremely limited. At present, there is no known malware that has used this exploit. The proper fix will come with the next hardware revision, and is considered a low priority due to the lack of practical usage of running malicious code on the coprocessor.
At the time of writing, all current Apple computers have a T2 chip present, with the exception of the 2019 iMac lineup. This will change very soon with the expected release of the 2020 iMac lineup at WWDC, which will incorporate a T2 coprocessor as well.
Note: from here on, this turns entirely into speculation based on info gathered from a variety of disparate sources.
Right now, we are in the final steps of Stage 2. There are strong signs that an a MacBook (12”) with an ARM main processor will be announced this year at WWDC (“One more thing...”), at a Fall 2020 event, Q1 2021 event, or WWDC 2021. Based on the lack of a more concrete answer, WWDC2020 will likely not see it, but I am open to being wrong here.

Stage3 (Present/2021 - 2022/2023):

Stage 3 involves the first version of at least one fully ARM-powered Mac into Apple’s computer lineup.
I expect this will come in the form of the previously-retired 12” MacBook. There are rumors that Apple is still working internally to perfect the infamous Butterfly keyboard, and there are also signs that Apple is developing an A14x based processors with 8-12 cores designed specifically for use as the primary processor in a Mac. It makes sense that this model could see the return of the Butterfly keyboard, considering how thin and light it is intended to be, and using an A14x processor would make it will be a very capable, very portable machine, and should give customers a good taste of what is to come.
Personally, I am excited to test the new 12" “ARMbook”. I do miss my own original 12", even with all the CPU failure issues those older models had. It was a lovely form factor for me.
It's still not entirely known whether the physical design of these will change from the retired version, exactly how many cores it will have, the port configuration, etc. I have also heard rumors about the 12” model possibly supporting 5G cellular connectivity natively thanks to the A14 series processor. All of this will most likely be confirmed soon enough.
This 12” model will be the perfect stepping stone for stage 3, since Apple’s ARM processors are not yet a full-on replacement for Intel’s full processor lineup, especially at the high end, in products such as the upcoming 2020 iMac, iMac Pro, 16” MacBook Pro, and the 2019 Mac Pro.
Performance of Apple’s ARM platform compared to Intel has been a big point of contention over the last couple years, primarily due to the lack of data representative of real-world desktop usage scenarios. The iPad Pro and other models with Apple’s highest-end silicon still lack the ability to execute a lot of high end professional applications, so data about anything more than video editing and photo editing tasks benchmarks quickly becomes meaningless. While there are completely synthetic benchmarks like Geekbench, Antutu, and others, to try and bridge the gap, they are very far from being accurate or representative of the real real world performance in many instances. Even though the Apple ARM processors are incredibly powerful, and I do give constant praise to their silicon design teams, there still just isn’t enough data to show how they will perform for real-world desktop usage scenarios, and synthetic benchmarks are like standardized testing: they only show how good a platform is at running the synthetic benchmark. This type of benchmark stresses only very specific parts of each chip at a time, rather than how well it does a general task, and then boil down the complexity and nuances of each chip into a single numeric score, which is not a remotely accurate way of representing processors with vastly different capabilities and designs. It would be like gauging how well a person performs a manual labor task based on averaging only the speed of every individual muscle in the body, regardless of if, or how much, each is used. A specific group of muscles being stronger or weaker than others could wildly skew the final result, and grossly misrepresent performance of the person as a whole. Real world program performance will be the key in determining the success and future of this transition, and it will have to be great on this 12" model, but not just in a limited set of tasks, it will have to be great at *everything*. It is intended to be the first Horseman of the Apocalypse for the Intel Mac, and it better behave like one. Consumers have been expecting this, especially after 15 years of Intel processors, the continued advancement of Apple’s processors, and the decline of Intel’s market lead.
The point of this “demonstration” model is to ease both users and developers into the desktop ARM ecosystem slowly. Much like how the iPhone X paved the way for FaceID-enabled iPhones, this 12" model will pave the way towards ARM Mac systems. Some power-user type consumers may complain at first, depending on the software compatibility story, then realize it works just fine since the majority of the computer users today do not do many tasks that can’t be accomplished on an iPad or lower end computer. Apple needs to gain the public’s trust for basic tasks first, before they will be able to break into the market of users performing more hardcore or “Pro” tasks. This early model will probably not be targeted at these high-end professionals, which will allow Apple to begin to gather early information about the stability and performance of this model, day to day usability, developmental issues that need to be addressed, hardware failure analysis, etc. All of this information is crucial to Stage 4, or possibly later parts of Stage 3.
The 2 biggest concerns most people have with the architecture change is app support and Bootcamp.
Any apps released through the Mac App Store will not be a problem. Because App Store apps are submitted as LLVM IR (“Bitcode”), the system can automatically download versions compiled and optimized for ARM platforms, similar to how App Thinning on iOS works. For apps distributed outside the App Store, thing might be more tricky. There are a few ways this could go:
As for Bootcamp, while ARM-compatible versions of Windows do exist and are in development, they come with their own similar set of app support problems. Microsoft has experimented with emulating x86_64 on their ARM-based Surface products, and some other OEMs have created their own Windows-powered ARM laptops, but with very little success. Performance is a problem across the board, with other ARM silicon not being anywhere near as advanced, and with the majority of apps in the Windows ecosystem that were not developed in-house at Microsoft running terribly due to the x86_64 emulation software. If Bootcamp does come to the early ARM MacBook, it more than likely will run like very poorly for anything other than Windows UWP apps. There is a high chance it will be abandoned entirely until Windows becomes much more friendly to the architecture.
I believe this will also be a very crucial turning point for the MacBook lineup as a whole. At present, the iPad Pro paired with the Magic Keyboard is, in many ways, nearly identical to a laptop, with the biggest difference being the system software itself. While Apple executives have outright denied plans of merging the iPad and MacBook line, that could very well just be a marketing stance, shutting the down rumors in anticipation of a well-executed surprise. I think that Apple might at least re-examine the possibility of merging Macs and iPads in some capacity, but whether they proceed or not could be driven by consumer reaction to both products. Do they prefer the feel and usability of macOS on ARM, and like the separation of both products? Is there success across the industry of the ARM platform, both at the lower and higher end of the market? Do users see that iPadOS and macOS are just 2 halves of the same coin? Should there be a middle ground, and a new type of product similar to the Surface Book, but running macOS? Should Macs and iPads run a completely uniform OS? Will iPadOS ever see exposed the same sort of UNIX-based tools for IT administrators and software developers that macOS has present? These are all very real questions that will pop up in the near future.
The line between Stage 3 and Stage 4 will be blurry, and will depend on how Apple wishes to address different problems going forward, and what the reactions look like. It is very possible that only 12” will be released at first, or a handful more lower end model laptop and desktop products could be released, with high performance Macs following in Stage 4, or perhaps everything but enterprise products like Mac Pro will be switched fully. Only time will tell.

Stage 4 (the end goal):

Congratulations, you’re made it to the end of my TED talk. We are now well into the 2020s and COVID-19 Part 4 is casually catching up to the 5G = Virus crowd. All Macs have transitioned fully to ARM. iMac, MacBooks Pro and otherwise, Mac Pro, Mac Mini, everything. The future is fully Apple from top to bottom, and vertical integration leading to market dominance continues. Many other OEM have begun to follow in this path to some extent, creating more demand for a similar class of silicon from other firms.
The remainder here is pure speculation with a dash of wishful thinking. There are still a lot of things that are entirely unclear. The only concrete thing is that Stage 4 will happen when everything is running Apple’s in- house processors.
By this point, consumers will be quite familiar with the ARM Macs existing, and developers have had have enough time to transition apps fully over to the newly unified system. Any performance, battery life, or app support concerns will not be an issue at this point.
There are no more details here, it’s the end of the road, but we are left with a number of questions.
It is unclear if Apple will stick to AMD's GPUs or whether they will instead opt to use their in-house graphics solutions that have been used since the A11 series of processors.
How Thunderbolt support on these models of Mac will be achieved is unknown. While Intel has made it openly available for use, and there are plans to have USB and Thunderbolt combined in a single standard, it’s still unclear how it will play along with Apple processors. Presently, iPhones do support connecting devices via PCI Express to the processor, but it has only been used for iPhone and iPad storage. The current Apple processors simply lack the number of lanes required for even the lowest end MacBook Pro. This is an issue that would need to be addressed in order to ship a full desktop-grade platform.
There is also the question of upgradability for desktop models, and if and how there will be a replaceable, socketed version of these processors. Will standard desktop and laptop memory modules play nicely with these ARM processors? Will they drop standard memory across the board, in favor of soldered options, or continue to support user-configurable memory on some models? Will my 2023 Mac Pro play nicely with a standard PCI Express device that I buy off the shelf? Will we see a return of “Mac Edition” PCI devices?
There are still a lot of unknowns, and guessing any further in advance is too difficult. The only thing that is certain, however, is that Apple processors coming to Mac is very much within arm’s reach.
submitted by Fudge_0001 to apple [link] [comments]

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