bitcoin-tool/keys.c at master · matja/bitcoin-tool · GitHub

The Unofficial Cardano FAQ - V3

(if you would like to add information or see mistakes, just comment below and I will credit you)
What is Cardano? Cardano is an open source and permissionless "Third Generation" blockchain project being developed by IOHK. Development and research started in 2015, with the 1.0 mainnet launching in 2017. Cardano blockchain is currently being developed into two layers. The first one is the ledger of account values, and the second one is the reason why values are transferred from one account to the other.
  1. Cardano Settlement Layer (CSL) - The CSL acts as the ledger of account or balance ledger. This is an idea created as an improvement of bitcoin blockchain. It uses a proof-of-stake consensus algorithm known as Ouroboros to generate new blocks and confirm transactions.
  2. Cardano Computation Layer (CCL) - The CCL contains the data how values are transferred. Since the computation layer is not connected to balance ledger, users of the CCL can create customized rules (smart contracts) when evaluating transactions. (https://support.bitkub.com/hc/en-us/articles/360006678892-What-are-the-two-layers-of-Cardano-)
IOHK has the contract with an undisclosed party to develop the project until the end of 2020, at which point the community may elect another development team - on the assumption that the voting infrastructure has been completed. However CEO Charles Hoskinson has stated that they will develop the project until it is completed, and they are simply financed until the end of 2020.
Cardano was the first project built on a peer-reviewed scientific development method, resulting in dozens of research papers produced by IOHK. Among these papers is Ouroboros Genesis, proving that a Proof of Stake protocol can be just as secure as Proof of Work - which was originally developed for Bitcoin, and refined for Ethereum. This PoS protocol considerably lowers the resources cost to maintain network while still maintaining security and network speed.
Cardano as a financial infrastructure is not yet completed, With significant development to be rolled out.
What were the other two generations of blockchain? Gen 1 was Bitcoin. It exists by itself and talks to nobody but Bitcoin. It is capable of peer to peer transactions without a third party in such a way that you cannot cheat the system. This was a major step forward for the E-cash concept that people have been working on for the 20 years prior.
Gen 2 was Ethereum and other smart-contract platforms that allow other coins and platforms to be built on top of their infrastructure. These coins can interact with others on the platform, but cannot interact with other platforms. Meaning it is still not truly interoperable. Most Gen 2 blockchains are also using Proof of Work likes Bitcoin, which effects scaling. Also missing is a built-in method to pay for upgrades and voting mechanics for decision making.
Gen 3 blockchains are a complete package designed to replace the current financial infrastructure of the world. Cardano is using Proof of Stake to ensure security and decentralisation(Shelley). Scaling through parallel computation (Hydra in Basho), Sidechains to allow the platform to interact with other platforms (Basho), and also include mechanisms for voting for project funding, changes to the protocol and improvement proposals (Voltaire). Finally smart contracts platform for new and established projects that are developer friendly (Goguen).
Who is the team behind Cardano? There are three organisations that are contributing to the development of Cardano. The first is the Cardano Foundation, an objective, non-profit organisation based in Switzerland. Its core responsibilities are to nurture, grow and educate Cardano users and commercial communities, to engage with authorities on regulatory and commercial matters and to act as a blockchain and cryptocurrency standards body. The second entity is IOHK, a leading cryptocurrency research and development company, which holds the contract to develop the platform until 2020. The final business partner is Emurgo, which invests in start-ups and assists commercial ventures to build on the Cardano blockchain.
www.Cardano.org www.emurgo.io https://cardanofoundation.org/en/
What is the difference between Proof of Work and Proof of stake? Both these protocols are known as “consensus protocols” that confirm whether a transaction is valid or invalid without a middleman like Visa or your bank. Every node (active and updated copy of the blockchain) can agree that the transaction did take place legitimately. If more than half validators agree, then the ledger is updated and the transaction is now secured. Proof-of-Work (PoW) happens when a miner is elected to solve an exceptionally difficult math problem and gets credit for adding a verified block to the blockchain. Finding a solution is an arduous guessing game that takes a considerable amount of computing power to compete for the correct answer. It is like “pick a number between 1 and one trillion” and when you get it right, you get $30,000 in Bitcoin, so the more computers you have working on it, the faster you can solve it. Also the more people who are trying to solve the same block, the harder the algorithm, so it may become 1 in 20 trillion. The downside is the massive amounts of power required to run the computers that run the network, and the slow pace that blocks are solved. To “Hack” a PoW system, you need 51% of the computing power, which would allow you to deny transactions, or spend the same coin twice. At the moment there are 8 main mining operations for bitcoin, and 4 of them make up more that 51% of the mining power.
PoS instead selects a coin at random that already exists, and the person who owns that coin is elected to put the work in to validate the block. This means there is no contest and no guessing game. Some computer power is required, but only a fraction of a PoW system. The complex nature of selecting a coin that exists on the correct and longest chain and is owned by someone who can complete the block, AND in such a way that it is secure AND that computer currently running AND that person also having an incentive to complete the work, has made the development of PoS very slow. However only a few years ago it wasn’t even possible. In this method, the more of the coin (ADA) you stake, the more likely you are to be selected to close a block. Cardano also allows you to delegate your stake to someone else to validate the block so they do the work, and you share in the reward for doing so.
To “hack” a PoS blockchain you need to own 51% of the tokens, which is significantly harder than owning 51% of the computing power.
What is ADA and how is it different to Cardano? Cardano is the name of the network infrastructure, and can be thought of like a rail network. ADA is the native token that has been developed alongside Cardano to facilitate the network operation. This helps confusion and maintains distinction, compared to Ethereum being the native token of Ethereum. Similar to bitcoin or any other token, ADA can be sent peer to peer as payment, but is also the reward for running the network, and what is taken as transaction fees.
In this metaphor “Cardano” is the train tracks, that everything runs on. A stake pool would be the locomotive, facilitating transactions on the network while ADA is the coal that powers the locomotive. The train carriages are Decentralised applications (Dapps) that are also running on cardano tracks, but are not actively powering the network.
What is staking Cardano is a Proof of Stake protocol, and uses already existing coins like a marker to ensure security. The protocol chooses a coin at random and the owner of that coin is elected to validate a block of transactions. Staking is the process of adding your ADA coins to a Pool that has the resources to run the network. If the pool you have chosen to "delegate" your stake to is chosen to close/validate a block, then you get a portion of the rewards. The ADA never leaves your wallet, and you can "undelegate" whenever you like. this increases stability of the network and also gives an incentive to pool operators to invest the time and hardware required to run a pool.
What is a stake-pool and how does it work? Cardano.org FAQ on the issue goes into much more detail
A stake pool is where the computing power of the network takes place. During ITN there was 1200 registered stake pools while 300 were creating blocks. You can manage your own stake-pool or delegate your ADA to an already registered pool. Rewards are determined by the protocol, however the pool may elect to charge fee Percentages, or flat rate fee to upkeep their pool.
Can I Stake my ADA right now? The staking testnet has closed, If you participated in the Incentivised Test Net and earned rewards, instructions to check the balance are here.
However if you have just purchased some or it was held on an exchange, then you will need to wait until the Shelley mainnet launch happening at the end of July 2020.
Where do I stake my ADA? Daedalus Flight wallet, and Yoroi Wallet (as a chrome extension) are the current best options. Adalite and several other third-party wallets also exist. Coinbase will also allow staking as a custodial service, and many exchanges may offer “staking as a service” so you can leave your coins on the exchange and still earn rewards if you enjoy trading. I do not recommend leaving coins on an exchange unless you are actively trading.
What are the staking rewards now and what can I expect on a return in the future? The Incentivised Test Net (ITN) Delivered 10%-15%pa returns on average. The future of staking will most likely be lower, but will depend on the amount of ADA staked across the network and the amount of network traffic.
Check https://staking.cardano.org/en/calculato for a clearer picture.
what is a Pledge? To stop one person operating many pools, the rewards that a pool earns will vary depending on the amount of personal ADA they “pledge” to open the pool. This means that 50 pools with a 1,00ADA pledge each will be overall less profitable than 1-2 pool with the max ADA pledge (unknown but likely around 300k). Even if the 50 pools have the same over stake delegated by other users and have a better chance of being selected to close a block, the 50 pools may receive lower rewards.. (at least that is the theory)
Who is IOHK? IOHK is a for-profit software engineering company founded by CEO Charles Hoskinson and Jeremy Wood in 2015 that has taken a scientific approach to the development of blockchain. IOHK started with “first principles” and looked at questions like “what is a blockchain” and “what should a blockchain be able to do” rather than accepting the established paradigm of Bitcoin and Ethereum. IOHK was originally Input Output Hong Kong, but is now Input Output Global and is based in Wyoming USA employing over 230 staff. IOHK has established research labs in several universities in order to complete the Cardano project, and is also developing Ethereum Classic, Atala, Mantis and possibly other Blockchain related programs and infrastructure.
Who is Charles? Charles Hoskinson is an early adopter of cryptocurrencies, American entrepreneur and cryptocurrency specialist. Charles Co-founded Ethereum with Vitalik Buterin and 5-8 others, However he only worked on that project for approximately six-months. Charles is now the CEO of IOHK and the director of The Bitcoin Education Project.
Why isn’t ADA on coinbase? Cardano and coinbase have recently connected in a big way. With IOHK turning over all their ADA to the custodial services of Coinbase. This means that Cardano and Coinbase have been working together for some time and there is a strong partnership forming. Staking and cold storage will be available and trading on Coinbase will most likely become available after the release of Shelley (although no official word yet)
Why Doesn’t Cardano have a Wikipedia Page? Wikipedia has strict guidelines on what can be turned into an article. As there has been no coverage of Cardano from mainstream media or “noteworthy” sources, there is no article yet. Wikipedia will also not accept sources from IOHK as they are not considered “reliable” and must come from a third party. This will most likely change soon.
Cardano does have a dedicated community driven wiki
https://cardanowiki.info/wiki/Home
What is Atala and why do I care?*
Atala is a suite of services being developed on top of the cardano blockchain by IOHK that focusses on credential certification, for things like education, work history and degrees (Atala Prism). Product counterfeiting protection through registering products on a blockchain and create taper-proof provenance. This does not only apply to Gucci handbags, but also medication, art, and anything that can be counterfeited (Atala Scan). As well as supply chain tracking to see issues and inefficiencies with greater transparency(Atala Trace).
Im new, how much is a good investment?
Cardano is still a speculative market and although there is amazing potential here, it is still only potential. When investing in any High risk market like Crypto, only every invest what you are willing to lose. Cardano may be testing the 10c barrier now. But in March it dumped to 1.7c. And if you suddenly need your money back during the dump then you are out of luck. Do your research before you FOMO in. Start with a small amount and send it between wallets and exchanges to understand how the system works. Store your private keys offline (or online cloud service but encrypted) with a method that is unlikely to be damaged AND have multiple copies. So in the case of a house fire or a blow to the head, or the cloud service being shutdown/destroyed, you do not lose your money.
Timelines
https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/
Shelley Decentralisation rollout and news
Goguen smart contract rollout
Voltaire Voting mechanics – no official roll out timeline (though promised for 2020)
Basho scaling and sidechains – no official roll out time line (most likely 2021)
submitted by YourBestMateRobbo to cardano [link] [comments]

FinderOuter: the bitcoin recovery tool

Link: https://github.com/Coding-Enthusiast/FinderOuter
The FinderOuter is a bitcoin recovery tool that focuses on making the recovery process easy for everyone. There is no need to read long guide pages to learn how to use the application. Instead it will always be as easy as filling some boxes, maybe selecting some options and clicking a button all in a user-friendly GUI. Each recovery option is written from scratch and all parts down to the basic cryptography used (such as SHA, ECC,...) are specialized for maximum efficiency.

Available options

1. Message signature verification

User can enter a message signature here to verify it. In case there is a problem with the message (except being an actually invalid signature), the code can search to find the common issues that some signing tools have and fix them.

2. Missing Base-58 characters

This option helps recover any base-58 encoded string with a checksum that is missing some characters. For example a damaged paper wallet where some characters are erased/unreadable. The position of missing characters must be known. It works for (1) WIFs (Base-58 encoded private key) (2) Addresses (Base-58 encoded P2PKH address) (3) BIP-38 (Base-58 encoded encrypted private key).
There is also a "special case" where a compressed private key is missing 3 characters at unknown positions.

3. Missing Base-16 characters

This option is similar to previous feature but works for base-16 (hexadecimal) private keys. It currently requires an address and only checks compressed public keys. Unlike the other options, this one is very slow since it depends on ECC and that is not yet optimized.

4. Missing mini-privatekey characters

This option is similar to 2 and 3 but works for mini-privatekeys (eg. SzavMBLoXU6kDrqtUVmffv). It requires an address to check each possible key against, as a result it is also slower since it depends on ECC and has 2 additional hashes.

5. Missing mnomonic (seed) words

This option works for BIP-39 mnemonics (others like Electrum will be added in the future) that have some words missing. It requires knowing one child key or address created from that seed and the exact path of it.

Future plans

submitted by Coding_Enthusiast to Autarkysoft [link] [comments]

TKEYSPACE — blockchain in your mobile

TKEYSPACE — blockchain in your mobile

https://preview.redd.it/w8o3bcvjrtx41.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=840ac3872156215b30e708920edbef4583190654
Someone says that the blockchain in the phone is marketing. This is possible for most applications, but not for Tkeycoin. Today we will talk about how the blockchain works in the TkeySpace app.
Who else is not in the topic, TkeySpace is a financial application for decentralized and efficient management of various cryptocurrencies, based on a distributed architecture without using a client-server.
In simple words, it is a blockchain in the user’s mobile device that excludes hacking and hacker attacks, and all data is encrypted using modern cryptographic methods.
https://preview.redd.it/8uku6thlrtx41.png?width=1280&format=png&auto=webp&s=e1a610244da53100a5bc6b821ee5c799c6493ac4

Blockchain

Let’s start with the most important thing — the blockchain works on the principles of P2P networks, when there is no central server and each device is both a server and a client, such an organization allows you to maintain the network performance with any number and any combination of available nodes.
For example, there are 12 machines in the network, and anyone can contact anyone. As a client (resource consumer), each of these machines can send requests for the provision of some resources to other machines within this network and receive them. As a server, each machine must process requests from other machines in the network, send what was requested, and perform some auxiliary and administrative functions.
With traditional client-server systems, we can get a completely disabled social network, messenger, or another service, given that we rely on a centralized infrastructure — we have a very specific number of points of failure. If the main data center is damaged due to an earthquake or any other event, access to information will be slowed down or completely disabled.
With a P2P solution, the failure of one network member does not affect the network operation in any way. P2P networks can easily switch to offline mode when the channel is broken — in which it will exist completely independently and without any interaction.
Instead of storing information in a single central point, as traditional recording methods do, multiple copies of the same data are stored in different locations and on different devices on the network, such as computers or mobile devices.

https://i.redd.it/2c4sv7rnrtx41.gif
This means that even if one storage point is damaged or lost, multiple copies remain secure in other locations. Similarly, if one part of the information is changed without the consent of the rightful owners, there are many other copies where the information is correct, which makes the false record invalid.
The information recorded in the blockchain can take any form, whether it is a transfer of money, ownership, transaction, someone’s identity, an agreement between two parties, or even how much electricity a light bulb used.
However, this requires confirmation from multiple devices, such as nodes in the network. Once an agreement, otherwise known as consensus, is reached between these devices to store something on the blockchain — it can’t be challenged, deleted, or changed.
The technology also allows you to perform a truly huge amount of computing in a relatively short time, which even on supercomputers would require, depending on the complexity of the task, many years or even centuries of work. This performance is achieved because a certain global task is divided into a large number of blocks, which are simultaneously performed by hundreds of thousands of devices participating in the project.

P2P messaging and syncing in TkeySpace

TkeySpace is a node of the TKEY network and other supported networks. when you launch the app, your mobile node connects to an extensive network of supported blockchains, syncs with full nodes to validate transactions and incoming information between nodes, so the nodes organize a graph of connections between them.
You can always check the node information in the TkeySpace app in the ⚙ Settings Contact and peer info App Status;

https://preview.redd.it/co1k25kqrtx41.png?width=619&format=png&auto=webp&s=e443a436b11d797b475b00a467cd9609cac66b83
TkeySpace creates initiating connections to servers registered in the blockchain Protocol as the main ones, from these servers it gets the addresses of nodes to which it can join, in turn, the nodes to which the connection occurred share information about other nodes.

https://i.redd.it/m21pw88srtx41.gif
TkeySpace sends network messages to nodes from supported blockchains in the app to get up-to-date data from the network.
The Protocol uses data structures for communication between nodes, such as block propagation over the network, so before network messages are read, nodes check the “magic number”, check the first bytes, and determine the type of data structure. In the blockchain, the “magic number” is the network ID used to filter messages and block traffic from other p2p networks.
Magic numbers are used in computer science, both for files and protocols. They identify the type of file/data structure. A program that receives such a file/data structure can check the magic number and immediately find out the intended type of this file/data structure.
The first message that your node sends is called a Version Message. In response, the node waits for a Verack message to establish a connection between other peers. The exchange of such messages is called a “handshake”.

https://preview.redd.it/b6gh0hitrtx41.png?width=785&format=png&auto=webp&s=0101eaec6469fb53818486fa13da110f6a4a851d
After the “handshake” is set, TkeySpace will start connecting to other nodes in the network to determine the last block at the end of the required blockchain. At this point — nodes request information about blocks they know using GetBlock messages — in response, your node receives an inv (Inventory Message) from another node with the information that it has the information that was requested by the TkeySpace node.
In response to the received message, inv — TkeySpace sends a GetData message containing a list of blocks starting immediately after the last known hash.

https://preview.redd.it/lare5lsurtx41.png?width=768&format=png&auto=webp&s=da8d27110f406f715292b439051ca221fab47f77

Loading and storing blocks

After exchanging messages, the block information is loaded and transactions are uploaded to your node. To avoid storing tons of information and optimize hard disk space and data processing speed, we use RDBMS — PostgreSQL in full nodes (local computer wallet).
In the TkeySpace mobile app, we use SQLite, and validation takes place by uploading block headers through the Merkle Tree, using the bloom filter — this allows you to optimize the storage of your mobile device as much as possible.
The block header includes its hash, the hash of the previous block, transaction hashes, and additional service information.
Block headers in the Tkeycoin network=84 bytes due to the extension of parameters to support nChains, which will soon be launched in “combat” mode. The titles of the Bitcoin block, Dash, Litecoin=80 bytes.

https://preview.redd.it/uvv3qz7wrtx41.png?width=1230&format=png&auto=webp&s=5cf0cd8b6d099268f3d941aac322af05e781193c
And so, let’s continue — application nodes receive information from the blockchain by uploading block headers, all data is synchronized using the Merkle Tree, or rather your node receives and validates information from the Merkle root.
The hash tree was developed in 1979 by Ralph Merkle and named in his honor. The structure of the system has received this name also because it resembles a tree.
The Merkle tree is a complete binary tree with leaf vertexes containing hashes from data blocks, and inner vertexes containing hashes from adding values in child vertexes. The root node of the tree contains a hash from the entire data set, meaning the hash tree is a unidirectional hash function. The Merkle tree is used for the efficient storage of transactions in the cryptocurrency blockchain. It allows you to get a “fingerprint” of all transactions in the block, as well as effectively verify transactions.

https://preview.redd.it/3hmbthpxrtx41.png?width=677&format=png&auto=webp&s=cca3d54c585747e0431c6c4de6eec7ff7e3b2f4d
Hash trees have an advantage over hash chains or hash functions. When using hash trees, it is much less expensive to prove that a certain block of data belongs to a set. Since different blocks are often independent data, such as transactions or parts of files, we are interested in being able to check only one block without recalculating the hashes for the other nodes in the tree.
https://i.redd.it/f7o3dh7zrtx41.gif
The Merkle Tree scheme allows you to check whether the hash value of a particular transaction is included in Merkle Root, without having all the other transactions in the block. So by having the transaction, block header, and Merkle Branch for that transaction requested from the full node, the digital wallet can make sure that the transaction was confirmed in a specific block.

https://i.redd.it/88sz13w0stx41.gif
The Merkle tree, which is used to prove that a transaction is included in a block, is also very well scaled. Because each new “layer” added to the tree doubles the total number of “leaves” it can represent. You don’t need a deep tree to compactly prove transaction inclusion, even among blocks with millions of transactions.

Statistical constants and nChains

To support the Tkeycoin cryptocurrency, the TkeySpace application uses additional statistical constants to prevent serialization of Merkle tree hashes, which provides an additional layer of security.
Also, for Tkeycoin, support for multi-chains (nChains) is already included in the TkeySpace app, which will allow you to use the app in the future with most of the features of the TKEY Protocol, including instant transactions.

The Bloom Filter

An additional level of privacy is provided by the bloom filter — which is a probabilistic data structure that allows you to check whether an element belongs to a set.

https://preview.redd.it/7ejkvi82stx41.png?width=374&format=png&auto=webp&s=ed75cd056949fc3a2bcf48b4d7ea78d3dc6d81f3
The bloom filter looks for whether a particular transaction is linked to Alice, not whether Alice has a specific cryptocurrency. In this way, transactions and received IDs are analyzed through a bloom filter. When “Alice wants to know about transaction X”, an ID is requested for transaction X, which is compared with the filled segments in her bloom filter. If “Yes” is received, the node can get the information and verify the transaction.

https://preview.redd.it/gjpsbss3stx41.png?width=1093&format=png&auto=webp&s=4cdcbc827849d13b7d6f0b7e7ba52e65ddc03a82

HD support

The multi-currency wallet TkeySpace is based on HD (or hierarchical determinism), a privacy-oriented method for generating and managing addresses. Each wallet address is generated from an xPub wallet (or extended public key). The app is completely anonymous — and individual address is generated for each transaction to accept a particular cryptocurrency. Even for low-level programming, using the same address is negative for the system, not to mention your privacy. We recommend that you always use a new address for transactions to ensure the necessary level of privacy and security.
The EXT_PUBLIC_KEY and EXT_SECRET_KEY values for DASH, Bitcoin, and Litecoin are completely identical. Tkeycoin uses its values, as well as other methods for storing transactions and blocks (RDBMS), and of course — nChains.

Secret key

Wallets in the blockchain have public and private keys.
https://preview.redd.it/br9kk8n5stx41.png?width=840&format=png&auto=webp&s=a36e4c619451735469a9cff57654d322467e4fba
Centralized applications usually store users’ private keys on their servers, which makes users’ funds vulnerable to hacker attacks or theft.
A private key is a special combination of characters that provides access to cryptocurrencies stored on the account. Only a person who knows the key can move and spend digital assets.
TkeySpace — stores the encrypted key only on the user’s device and in encrypted form. The encrypted key is displayed as a mnemonic phrase (backup phrase), which is very convenient for users. Unlike complex cryptographic ciphers, the phrase is easy to save or write. A backup keyword provides the maximum level of security.
A mnemonic phrase is 12 or 24 words that are generated using random number entropy. If a phrase consists of 12 words, then the number of possible combinations is 204⁸¹² or 21¹³² — the phrase will have 132 security bits. To restore the wallet, you must enter the mnemonic phrase in strict order, as it was presented after generation.

Result

Now we understand that your application TkeySpace is a node of the blockchain that communicates with other nodes using p2p messages, stores block headers and validate information using the Merkle Tree, verifies transactions, filters information using the bloom filter, and operates completely in a decentralized model. The application code contains all the necessary blockchain settings for communicating with the network, the so-called chain parameters.
TkeySpace is a new generation mobile app. A completely new level of security, easy user-friendly interfaces and all the necessary features that are required to work with cryptocurrency.
submitted by tkeycoin to Tkeycoin_Official [link] [comments]

Import Private Key into Core

I am trying to do this https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Help:How_to_import_private_keys_in_Bitcoin_Core_0.7%2B
After I
importprivkey MyPrivateKeyInWalletImportFormat "TheLabelThatIWant"
I get Invalid private key encoding (code -5)
Help Please.
This is from a paper wallet.
submitted by Tom123sandman to vertcoin [link] [comments]

The Monetary Sovereignty War-cry: Proof of Keys - [Jan/3➞₿🔑∎]

TO All Soldiers for Monetary Sovereignty:
Every January 3rd the Bitcoin community participates in a Proof of Keys celebration by demanding and taking possession of all bitcoins and other cryptocurrency held by trusted third parties on their behalf. You can do this by withdrawing all Bitcoin and other cryptocurrency to wallets where you hold the private keys and perform network consensus for validation.
On 9 Dec 2018 Trace Mayer introduced the annual Proof of Keys celebration.
This cultural tradition enables you, the individual, to prove your monetary sovereignty and strengthen the Bitcoin network by using a full-node for an economically substantive transaction(s). Together, on this day, all of us get to celebrate our monetary independence from trusted third parties (which are security holes!). And we strengthen the decentralization of the Bitcoin network in the process!

This is a way for you to invest in yourself. There are a lot of people who want to keep you weak, dependent and enervated when it comes to your monetary sovereignty. You must take the personal responsibility and summon the desire to take action to declare your monetary independence and prove to yourself that you, and no-one else, hold the private keys to your own money.

There has been much discussion on Reddit, Twitter and Youtube for those who need help with how to do this safely and securely. And those who were trained this year can become teachers next year. Even though we may be ensconced in our cold storage; we must never forget the new user and leave them behind and stranded on the battlefield of control over their money.

Some helpful interviews about Proof of Keys include Crypt0 News, Crypto Cast Network, Let's Talk Bitcoin - With Andreas Antonopolous and What Bitcoin Did. Some helpful discussion includes storing bitcoins , Bitcoin's Security Model and Bitcoin Miners and Invalid Blocks.

Perhaps most important is how this tradition helps educate, teach and train new users of Bitcoin. The effect on yourself is much more important than that on third parties or the Bitcoin network.

Hopefully, everything will go smoothly and there will be no losses of funds, no shady behaviors or delays by exchanges or other third-parties and no significant Bitcoin network congestion. But even if there is, those are very minor costs to pay in the battle for monetary sovereignty.

And if you already keep your bitcoins safely in cold storage and still want to join the community and participate then consider skipping a meal and instead buying $20+ worth of bitcoins and moving them into cold storage. Take more scarce territory on the Bitcoin blockchain!

After all, having Proof of Keys is much better than 'Proof of Roger', MtGox, Silk Road), Bitfinex, Bitstamp, or some other possibly untrustworthy third party!

There have even been some articles about third parties halting withdrawals in preparation like HitBTC.
This video of Roger Ver was recorded on July 14, 2013 at the MTGOX headquarters. MtGox declared bankruptcy Feb 2014 announcing 850,000 bitcoins belonging to customers were missing.
In conclusion, this magic Internet money thing is about a lot more than just making money. The battle over our monetary sovereignty is now a personal fight by each of us. We have rallied around the banner of Bitcoin because (1) it is the soundest and hardest money that is strictly limited in amount that the world has ever known and (2) it is a censorship-resistant decentralized network. But to maintain those properties requires eternal vigilance and protection by those who yearn for those protections.

Thus, this battle over monetary sovereignty has only two possible outcomes: either (1) control of their own lives by the people themselves the world over or (2) control of the people and their lives by political and economic elitists.

So, fellow soldiers on the battlefield of monetary sovereignty, every January Third join me in a Proof of Keys!

Sincerely,
Trace Mayer

submitted by bitcoinknowledge to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

IOTA and Tangle discussion/info, scam or not?

In the past weeks I heard a lot pros and cons about IOTA, many of them I believe were not true (I'll explain better). I would like to start a serious discussion about IOTA and help people to get into it. Before that I'll contribute with what I know, most things that I will say will have a source link providing some base content.
 
The pros and cons that I heard a lot is listed below, I'll discuss the items marked with *.
Pros
Cons
 

Scalability

Many users claim that the network infinitely scales, that with more transactions on the network the faster it gets. This is not entirely true, that's why we are seeing the network getting congested (pending transactions) at the moment (12/2017).
The network is composed by full-nodes (stores all transactions), each full-node is capable of sending transactions direct to the tangle. An arbitrary user can set a light-node (do not store all transactions, therefore a reduced size), but as it does not stores all transactions and can't decide if there are conflicting transactions (and other stuff) it needs to connect to a full-node (bitifinex node for example) and then request for the full-node to send a transaction to the tangle. The full-node acts like a bridge for a light-node user, the quantity of transactions at the same time that a full-node can push to the tangle is limited by its brandwidth.
What happens at the moment is that there are few full-nodes, but more important than that is: the majority of users are connected to the same full-node basically. The full-node which is being used can't handle all the requested transactions by the light-nodes because of its brandwidth. If you are a light-node user and is experiencing slow transactions you need to manually select other node to get a better performance. Also, you need to verify that the minimum weight magnitude (difficulty of the Hashcash Proof of Work) is set to 14 at least.
The network seems to be fine and it scales, but the steps an user has to make/know are not friendly-user at all. It's necessary to understand that the technology envolved is relative new and still in early development. Do not buy iota if you haven't read about the technology, there is a high chance of you losing your tokens because of various reasons and it will be your own fault. You can learn more about how IOTA works here.
There are some upcoming solutions that will bring the user-experience to a new level, The UCL Wallet (expected to be released at this month, will talk about that soon and how it will help the network) and the Nelson CarrIOTA (this week) besides the official implementations to come in december.
 

Centralization

We all know that currently (2017) IOTA depends on the coordinator because the network is still in its infancy and because of that it is considered centralized by the majority of users.
The coordinator are several full-nodes scattered across the world run by the IOTA foundation. It creates periodic Milestones (zero value transactions which reference valid transactions) which are validated by the entire network. The coordinator sets the general direction for the tangle growth. Every node verifies that the coordinator is not breaking consensus rules by creating iotas out of thin air or approving double-spendings, nodes only tells other nodes about transactions that are valid, if the Coordinator starts issuing bad Milestones, nodes will reject them.
The coordinator is optional since summer 2017, you can choose not implement it in your full-node, any talented programmer could replace Coo logic in IRI with Random Walk Monte Carlo logic and go without its milestones right now. A new kind of distributed coordinator is about to come and then, for the last, its completely removal. You can read more about the coordinator here and here.

Mining-Blockchain-based Cryptocurrencies

These are blockchain-based cryptocurrencies (Bitcoin) that has miners to guarantee its security. Satoshi Nakamoto states several times in the Bitcoin whitepaper that "The system is secure as long as honest nodes collectively control more CPU power than any cooperating group of attacker nodes". We can see in Blockchain.info that nowadays half of the total hashpower in Bitcoin is controlled by 3 companies (maybe only 1 in the future?). Users must trust that these companies will behave honestly and will not use its 50%> hashpower to attack the network eventually. With all that said it's reasonable to consider the IOTA network more decentralized (even with the coordinator) than any mining-blockchain-based cryptocurrency
You can see a comparison between DAG cryptocurrencies here
 

IOTA partnerships

Some partnerships of IOTA foundation with big companies were well known even when they were not officialy published. Some few examples of confirmed partnerships are listed below, others cofirmed partnerships can be seem in the link Partnerships with big companies at the pros section.
So what's up with all alarming in social media about IOTA Foundation faking partnerships with big companies like Microsoft and Cisco?
At Nov. 28th IOTA Foundation announced the Data Marketplace with 30+ companies participating. Basically it's a place for any entity sell data (huge applications, therefore many companies interested), at time of writing (11/12/2017) there is no API for common users, only companies in touch with IOTA Foundation can test it.
A quote from Omkar Naik (Microsoft worker) depicted on the Data Marketplace blog post gave an idea that Microsoft was in a direct partnership with IOTA. Several news websites started writing headlines "Microsoft and IOTA launches" (The same news site claimed latter that IOTA lied about partnership with Microsoft) when instead Microsoft was just one of the many participants of the Data Marketplace. Even though it's not a direct partnership, IOTA and Microsoft are in close touch as seen in IOTA Microsoft and Bosch meetup december 12th, Microsoft IOTA meetup in Paris 14th and Microsoft Azure adds 5 new Blockchain partners (may 2016). If you join the IOTA Slack channel you'll find out that there are many others big companies in close touch with IOTA like BMW, Tesla and other companies. This means that right now there are devs of IOTA working directly with scientists of these companies to help them integrate IOTA on their developments even though there is no direct partnership published, I'll talk more about the use cases soon.
We are excited to partner with IOTA foundation and proud to be associated with its new data marketplace initiative... - Omkar Naik
 

IOTA's use cases

Every cryptocurrency is capable of being a way to exchange goods, you pay for something using the coin token and receive the product. Some of them are more popular or have faster transactions or anonymity while others offers better scalablity or user-friendness. But none of them (except IOTA) are capable of transactioning information with no costs (fee-less transactions), in an securely form (MAM) and being sure that the network will not be harmed when it gets more adopted (scales). These characteristics open the gates for several real world applications, you probably might have heard of Big Data and how data is so important nowadays.
Data sets grow rapidly - in part because they are increasingly gathered by cheap and numerous information-sensing Internet of things devices such as mobile devices, aerial (remote sensing), software logs, cameras, microphones, radio-frequency identification (RFID) readers and wireless sensor networks.
 
It’s just the beginning of the data period. Data is going to be so important for human life in the future. So we are now just starting. We are a big data company, but compared to tomorrow, we are nothing. - Jack Ma (Alibaba)
There are enormous quantities of wasted data, often over 99% is lost to the void, that could potentially contain extremely valuable information if allowed to flow freely in data streams that create an open and decentralized data lake that is accessible to any compensating party. Some of the biggest corporations of the world are purely digital like Google, Facebook and Amazon. Data/information market will be huge in the future and that's why there so many companies interested in what IOTA can offer.
There are several real world use cases being developed at the moment, many of them if successful will revolutionize the world. You can check below a list of some of them.
Extra
These are just few examples, there are a lot more ongoing and to explore.
 

IOTA Wallet (v2.5.4 below)

For those who have read a lot about IOTA and know how it works the wallet is fine, but that's not the case for most users. Issues an user might face if decide to use the current wallet:
Problems that could be easily avoided with a better understand of the network/wallet or with a better wallet that could handle these issues. As I explained before, some problems during the "congestion" of the network could be simply resolved if stuff were more user-friendly, this causes many users storing their iotas on exchanges which is not safe either.
The upcoming (dec 2017) UCL Wallet will solve most of these problems. It will switch between nodes automatically and auto-reattach transactions for example (besides other things). You can have full a overview of it here and here. Also, the upcoming Nelson CarrIOTA will help on automatic peer discovery for users setup their nodes more easily.
 

IOTA Vulnerability issue

On sept 7th 2017 a team from MIT reported a cryptographic issue on the hash function Curl. You can see the full response of IOTA members below.
Funds were never in danger as such scenarios depicted on the Neha's blogpost were not pratically possible and the arguments used on the blogpost had'nt fundamentals, all the history you can check by yourself on the responses. Later it was discovered that the whole Neha Narula's team were envolved in other concurrent cryptocurrency projects
Currently IOTA uses the relatively hardware intensive NIST standard SHA-3/Keccak for crucial operations for maximal security. Curl is continuously being audited by more cryptographers and security experts. Recenlty IOTA Foundation hired Cybercrypt, the world leading lightweight cryptography and security company from Denmark to take the Curl cryptography to its next maturation phase.
 
It took me a couple of days to gather the informations presented, I wanted it to make easier for people who want to get into it. It might probably have some mistakes so please correct me if I said something wrong. Here are some useful links for the community.
This is my IOTA donation address, in case someone wants to donate I will be very thankful. I truly believe in this project's potential.
I9YGQVMWDYZBLHGKMTLBTAFBIQHGLYGSAGLJEZIV9OKWZSHIYRDSDPQQLTIEQEUSYZWUGGFHGQJLVYKOBWAYPTTGCX
 
This is a donation address, if you want to do the same you might pay attention to some important details:
  • Create a seed for only donation purposes.
  • Generate a address and publish it for everyone.
  • If you spend any iota you must attach a new address to the tangle and refresh your donation address published before to everyone.
  • If someone sends iota to your previous donation address after you have spent from it you will probably lose the funds that were sent to that specific address.
  • You can visualize how addresses work in IOTA here and here.
This happens because IOTA uses Winternitz one-time signature to become quantum resistent. Every time you spend iota from a address, part of the private key of that specific address is revealed. This makes easier for attackers to steal that address balance. Attackers can search if an address has been reused on the tangle explorer and try to brute force the private key since they already know part of it.
submitted by mvictordbz to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Lightning in a Schnorr/Taproot world

I'm doing a presentation on the impact of SchnorTaproot on Lightning at the Lightning conference in Berlin next week so I thought I'd set up a post on this topic to collect together the best resources and thoughts on where my understanding is still limited or lacking. I'll also post some questions and hopefully (!) find some answers.
Introductions to Schnorr and Taproot
LTB podcast with Pieter Wuille and Jonas Nick (transcript): http://diyhpl.us/wiki/transcripts/lets-talk-bitcoin-podcast/2019-06-09-ltb-pieter-wuille-jonas-nick/
"What this means in practice is you can take a group of people, take their public keys, combine those public keys together into a single public key and now those participants whose public keys you have taken to combine can jointly produce a signature for the combined public key."
"We can't use ed25519 for several reasons. One of them is we like to maintain compatibility with the existing public key system we have so that things like BIP32 and everything built on it don't get invalidated."
"Therefore we can reuse all of the existing encodings and in fact derive private, public and signatures from the same set of standard technologies we have. For example, mnemonic seeds based on BIP39 and hierarchical deterministic wallets on BIP32 etc? That's a huge advantage."
"The way to look at Taproot is it is a generalization that merges pay-to-publickey or pay-to-publickey single key policies and pay-to-scripthash. In a way every output becomes both of them. Everything becomes a combination of a key or a script. "
"It is both a privacy and a scaling advantage. All you see on the chain is a single public key when paying to it and a single signature when spending it, that's all."
Elichai Turkel introduction to Schnorr at Chaincode Labs (transcript): http://diyhpl.us/wiki/transcripts/chaincode-labs/2019-08-16-elichai-turkel-schnorr-signatures/
James Chiang presentation on Taproot at Chaincode Labs (transcript): https://diyhpl.us/wiki/transcripts/chaincode-labs/2019-08-22-james-chiang-taproot-policy/
The draft BIPs
Schnorr: https://github.com/sipa/bips/blob/bip-schnorbip-schnorr.mediawiki
Taproot: https://github.com/sipa/bips/blob/bip-schnorbip-taproot.mediawiki
Tapscript: https://github.com/sipa/bips/blob/bip-schnorbip-tapscript.mediawiki
Early posts discussing SchnorTaproot
Greg Maxwell Bitcointalk post on Schnorr and signature aggregation: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1377298.0
Greg Maxwell mailing list post on Taproot: https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2018-January/015614.html
Aaron van Wirdum articles for Bitcoin Magazine
Taproot: https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/taproot-coming-what-it-and-how-it-will-benefit-bitcoin
Lightning transaction script
https://github.com/lightningnetwork/lightning-rfc/blob/maste03-transactions.md
submitted by michaelfolkson to u/michaelfolkson [link] [comments]

Blockchain Dictionary for Newbies

Blockchain Glossary: From A-Z
51% Attack
When more than half of the computing power of a cryptocurrency network is controlled by a single entity or group, this entity or group may issue conflicting transactions to harm the network, should they have the malicious intent to do so.
Address
Cryptocurrency addresses are used to send or receive transactions on the network. An address usually presents itself as a string of alphanumeric characters.
ASIC
Short form for ‘Application Specific Integrated Circuit’. Often compared to GPUs, ASICs are specially made for mining and may offer significant power savings.
Bitcoin
Bitcoin is the first decentralised, open source cryptocurrency that runs on a global peer to peer network, without the need for middlemen and a centralised issuer.
Block
Blocks are packages of data that carry permanently recorded data on the blockchain network.
Blockchain
A blockchain is a shared ledger where transactions are permanently recorded by appending blocks. The blockchain serves as a historical record of all transactions that ever occurred, from the genesis block to the latest block, hence the name blockchain.
Block Explorer
Block explorer is an online tool to view all transactions, past and current, on the blockchain. They provide useful information such as network hash rate and transaction growth.
Block Height
The number of blocks connected on the blockchain.
Block Reward
A form of incentive for the miner who successfully calculated the hash in a block during mining. Verification of transactions on the blockchain generates new coins in the process, and the miner is rewarded a portion of those.
Central Ledger
A ledger maintained by a central agency.
Confirmation
The successful act of hashing a transaction and adding it to the blockchain.
Consensus
Consensus is achieved when all participants of the network agree on the validity of the transactions, ensuring that the ledgers are exact copies of each other.
Cryptocurrency
Also known as tokens, cryptocurrencies are representations of digital assets.
Cryptographic Hash Function
Cryptographic hashes produce a fixed-size and unique hash value from variable-size transaction input. The SHA-256 computational algorithm is an example of a cryptographic hash.
Dapp
A decentralised application (Dapp) is an application that is open source, operates autonomously, has its data stored on a blockchain, incentivised in the form of cryptographic tokens and operates on a protocol that shows proof of value.
DAO
Decentralised Autonomous Organizations can be thought of as corporations that run without any human intervention and surrender all forms of control to an incorruptible set of business rules.
Distributed Ledger
Distributed ledgers are ledgers in which data is stored across a network of decentralized nodes. A distributed ledger does not have to have its own currency and may be permissioned and private.
Distributed Network
A type of network where processing power and data are spread over the nodes rather than having a centralised data centre.
Difficulty
This refers to how easily a data block of transaction information can be mined successfully.
Digital Signature
A digital code generated by public key encryption that is attached to an electronically transmitted document to verify its contents and the sender’s identity.
Double Spending
Double spending occurs when a sum of money is spent more than once.
Ethereum
Ethereum is a blockchain-based decentralised platform for apps that run smart contracts, and is aimed at solving issues associated with censorship, fraud and third party interference.
EVM
The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a Turing complete virtual machine that allows anyone to execute arbitrary EVM Byte Code. Every Ethereum node runs on the EVM to maintain consensus across the blockchain.
Fork
Forks create an alternate version of the blockchain, leaving two blockchains to run simultaneously on different parts of the network.
Genesis Block
The first or first few blocks of a blockchain.
Hard Fork
A type of fork that renders previously invalid transactions valid, and vice versa. This type of fork requires all nodes and users to upgrade to the latest version of the protocol software.
Hash
The act of performing a hash function on the output data. This is used for confirming coin transactions.
Hash Rate
Measurement of performance for the mining rig is expressed in hashes per second.
Hybrid PoS/PoW
A hybrid PoS/PoW allows for both Proof of Stake and Proof of Work as consensus distribution algorithms on the network. In this method, a balance between miners and voters (holders) may be achieved, creating a system of community-based governance by both insiders (holders) and outsiders (miners).
Mining
Mining is the act of validating blockchain transactions. The necessity of validation warrants an incentive for the miners, usually in the form of coins. In this cryptocurrency boom, mining can be a lucrative business when done properly. By choosing the most efficient and suitable hardware and mining target, mining can produce a stable form of passive income.
Multi-Signature
Multi-signature addresses provide an added layer of security by requiring more than one key to authorize a transaction.
Node
A copy of the ledger operated by a participant of the blockchain network.
Oracles
Oracles work as a bridge between the real world and the blockchain by providing data to the smart contracts.
Peer to Peer
Peer to Peer (P2P) refers to the decentralized interactions between two parties or more in a highly-interconnected network. Participants of a P2P network deal directly with each other through a single mediation point.
Public Address
A public address is the cryptographic hash of a public key. They act as email addresses that can be published anywhere, unlike private keys.
Private Key
A private key is a string of data that allows you to access the tokens in a specific wallet. They act as passwords that are kept hidden from anyone but the owner of the address.
Proof of Stake
A consensus distribution algorithm that rewards earnings based on the number of coins you own or hold. The more you invest in the coin, the more you gain by mining with this protocol.
Proof of Work
A consensus distribution algorithm that requires an active role in mining data blocks, often consuming resources, such as electricity. The more ‘work’ you do or the more computational power you provide, the more coins you are rewarded with.
Scrypt
Scrypt is a type of cryptographic algorithm and is used by Litecoin. Compared to SHA256, this is quicker as it does not use up as much processing time.
SHA-256
SHA-256 is a cryptographic algorithm used by cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. However, it uses a lot of computing power and processing time, forcing miners to form mining pools to capture gains.
Smart Contracts
Smart contracts encode business rules in a programmable language onto the blockchain and are enforced by the participants of the network.
Soft Fork
A soft fork differs from a hard fork in that only previously valid transactions are made invalid. Since old nodes recognize the new blocks as valid, a soft fork is essentially backward-compatible. This type of fork requires most miners upgrading in order to enforce, while a hard fork requires all nodes to agree on the new version.
Solidity
Solidity is Ethereum’s programming language for developing smart contracts.
Testnet
A test blockchain used by developers to prevent expending assets on the main chain.
Transaction Block
A collection of transactions gathered into a block that can then be hashed and added to the blockchain.
Transaction Fee
All cryptocurrency transactions involve a small transaction fee. These transaction fees add up to account for the block reward that a miner receives when he successfully processes a block.
Turing Complete
Turing complete refers to the ability of a machine to perform calculations that any other programmable computer is capable of. An example of this is the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).
Wallet
A file that houses private keys. It usually contains a software client which allows access to view and create transactions on a specific blockchain that the wallet is designed for.
submitted by Tokenberry to NewbieZone [link] [comments]

As part of my ongoing effort to develop stupid shit for Garlicoin, I present you: W-addresses!

“Wait, what?!” I hear you asking? Well…(buckle up, this is another one of my technical posts that goes on, and on…)
For some time now, I have been using native SegWit (Pay-to-Witness-Public-Key-Hash, P2WPKH) transactions for myself. Mostly because they have a 75% fee subsidy on signature data (which comes out on ~50% fee subsidy on the entire transaction, depending on the type of transaction) and I am dutch after all ;-)
It turns out that Garlicoin Core kind of supports them and kind of does not. If you manually register the transaction redeem script to your wallet (using the addwitnessaddress command) it will start recognizing them on the blockchain but gets kind of confused on how to deal with them, so it registers them all as ‘change’ transactions. Still, this means you can receive coins using these types of transactions and pay with them in all ways you can with regular Garlicoins, except your transactions are cheaper.
However, sending coins using native SegWit is quite a hassle. You can basically only do it by creating your own raw transactions (createrawtransaction, edit it to make it native SegWit, fundrawtransaction, signrawtransaction, sendrawtransaction). On top of this, any change address the wallet creates are still legacy/normal Garlicoin addresses, so you will end up with a bunch of unspent transaction outputs (UTXOs) for which you have to pay full fee anyway. I decided we (I) could do better than this.
But first a few steps back. What is this native SegWit anyway and weren’t people already using SegWit? Wasn’t there a user that just after mainnet launched accidentally made a SegWit transaction? So what the hell am I talking about?
To understand this, you will need to know a few things about what SegWit is and how Bitcoin Garlicoin transactions work in general. Note that this bit gets really technical, so if you are not interested, you might want to skip ahead. A lot.
First thing to understand is that addresses are not really a thing if you look at the blockchain. While nodes and explorers will interpret parts of a transaction as addresses, in reality addresses are just an abstraction around Bitcoin Script and an easy way send coins instead of asking people “hey, can you send some coins to the network in such a way that only the private key that corresponds to public key XYZ can unlock them?”. Let’s look at an example: say I ask you to send coins to my address GR1Vcgj2r6EjGQJHHGkAUr1XnidA19MrxC. What ends up happening is that you send coins out a transaction where you say that the coin are locked in the blockchain and can only be unlocked by successfully executing the following script:
OP_DUP OP_HASH160 4e9856671c3abb2f03b7d80b9238e8f5ecd9f050 OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_CHECKSIG
Now, without getting too technical, this means something like this:
As you can see, the address actually represents a well-known piece of script. This start making sense if you look at the decoded address:
26 4E9856671C3ABB2F03B7D80B9238E8F5ECD9F050 F8F1F945
The first byte (0x26, or 38) is the version byte. This tells the clients how the interpret the rest of the script. In our case 38 means Pay-to-Public-Key-Hash (P2PKH), or in other words the script mentioned above. The part after that is just the SHA1 hash of the public key and the final 4 bytes are a checksum to verify you did not make a typo when entering the address.
Enter SegWit. What SegWit exactly is depends on who you are talking to, however it mostly is a different transaction format/protocol. The main change of SegWit is that signature data is not longer included in the transaction (fixing transaction malleability). Instead transaction data is sent separate from the transaction itself and outside of the (main) blocks.
This is not really that much of an issue, except for the fact that people wanted to enable SegWit as a soft-fork instead of a hard-fork. This means that somehow unupgraded nodes needed a way to deal with these new transaction types without being able to verify them.
The solution turned out to be to make use of an implementation detail of Bitcoin Script: if a piece of script executes without any errors, the last bit of data determines whether the transaction is valid (non-zero) or invalid (zero). This is what they used to implement SegWit.
So what does this look like? Well, you might be surprised how simple a P2WPKH (the SegWit way of doing a P2PKH transaction) script looks:
00 4e9856671c3abb2f03b7d80b9238e8f5ecd9f050
Yes. That’s it.
The first byte is the Witness program version byte. I.e. it tells you how the other data should be interpreted (very similar to how addresses work). Then there is the hash of the public key. As you can see, SegWit does not actually use Bitcoin Script. Mostly because it needs old nodes to ‘just accept’ its transactions. However interestingly enough, while the transaction format changed, the transaction data is pretty much the same:
This means that these kind of SegWit transactions need a new way of addressing them. Now, you might think that this is where the ‘3’ addresses on Bitcoin or the ‘M’ addresses on Garlicoin come in. However, that is not the case.
These addresses are what are called Pay-to-Script-Hash (P2SH) addresses. There scrypt is like this:
OP_HASH160 35521b9e015240942ad6b0735c6e7365354b0794 OP_EQUAL
Huh? Yeah, these are a very special type of transactions, that kind of go back to the “hey, can you send some coins to the network in such a way that only the private key that corresponds to public key XYZ can unlock them?” issue.
These transactions are a way to have arbitrary smart contracts (within the limits of Bitcoin Script) to determine whether a transaction output can be spend or not without the sender of the coins having to deal with your scripts. Basically they use a hash of the “real” script, which whoever owns the coins has to provide when they want to spend them, as well as the specific inputs required for a script. This functionality is for example used in multi-signature (MultiSig) wallets, without requiring someone sending money to these wallets having to deal with random bits of information like how many signatures are required, how many private keys belong to the wallet, etc.
This same method is used for so called P2SH-wrapped SegWit transactions (or P2SH-P2WPKH). Consider our earlier SegWit transaction output script:
00 4e9856671c3abb2f03b7d80b9238e8f5ecd9f050
Or 00144e9856671c3abb2f03b7d80b9238e8f5ecd9f050 in low-level hex. The P2SH script for this would be:
OP_HASH160 a059c8385124aa273dd3feaf52f4d94d42f01796 OP_EQUAL
Which would give us address MNX1uHyAQMXsGiGt5wACiyMUgjHn1qk1Kw. This is what is now widely known and used as SegWit. But this is P2SH-wrapper SegWit, not native or "real" SegWit. Native would be using the data-only SegWit script directly.
The reason for using the P2SH variant is mostly about compatibility. While SegWit nodes understand these newer transactions, they were never officially assigned a way to convert them to addresses. Hence, they will show up in blockchain explorers as Unparsed address [0] or something similar. Then there is also the whole thing about old nodes and relaying non-standard transactions, but I will skip that bit for now.
Bitcoin is using/going to use new BECH32 addresses for native SegWit transactions, which looks completely different from the old Base-58 encoded addresses. However, right now, especially on Garlicoin, you cannot really use them and have to use the P2SH variant. But why not use these new cool transaction types without having to deal with all that useless and complex P2SH wrapping, right? Right? …
Well, I went ahead and gave them their (unofficial) address space.
So last thursday I made some changes to Garlicoin Core, to make dealing with these native SegWit transaction a lot easier. In short, the changes consist of:
  • Assigning address version byte 73 to them, in other words addresses starting with a ‘W’ (for ‘witness’).
  • Allowing the use of ‘W’ addresses when sending coins.
  • Make the wallet automatically recognize the SegWit transaction type for any newly generated address.
  • Add the getwitnessaddress command, which decodes a version 38 ‘G’ address and re-encodes the same data as a version 73 ‘W’ address (unfortunately it is not as simple as just changing the first letter). Note that this can be any address, not just your own. (That said, you should not send SegWit transactions to people not expecting them, always use the address given to you.)
  • Added the usewitnesschangeaddress configuration setting, to automatically use the cheaper SegWit transaction outputs for transaction change outputs.
  • (Since using the 'W' address only changes the way coins are sent to you and the private key used for both transaction types is the same:) When receiving coins they show all up under the original ‘G’ address, whether a SegWit or legacy/normal transaction type was used. The idea behind this is that both are actually the same "physical" (?) address, just to the way to coins to it differs. Address book entries are also merged and default to the ‘G’ address type.
Anyway, I don’t expect people to actually use this or it getting merged into mainline or anything. I actually mostly made this for myself, but thought I should share anyway. I guess it was also a nice opportunity to talk a bit about transactions and SegWit. :-)
Btw, I also changed my pool to allow mining to ‘W’ addresses, to make coin consolidation cheaper (due to the SegWit fee subsidy). Right now this is only for instant payout though (as I would have to update the wallet node the pool is using for daily payout, which I haven’t done yet).
Also note that you can actually mine to a ‘W’ address (and therefore use cheaper transactions) even if you are running the official, non-patched version of Garlicoin Core, however:
  • You need to manually convert your ‘G’ address to a ‘W’ address.
  • You need to run the addwitnessaddress command (Help -> Debug Window -> Console) to make the wallet recognize SegWit transactions (you can ignore the ‘M’ address it produces).
  • The wallet might get a bit confused as it does not really understand how it got the coins. This is mostly notable in the ‘Coin Control’ window if you have it enabled. Apart from that everything should still work though.
submitted by nuc1e4r5n4k3 to garlicoin [link] [comments]

[Monday, February 5 2018] Half of Iranians wants to drop headscarf laws; Over $60 billion wiped off value of cryptocurrencies as bitcoin drops below $8,000; blood test to detect early signs of Alzheimer’s disease has been developed; U.S. consumer protection official puts Equifax probe on ice

/WorldNews

/News

/UpliftingNews

  • Lilithdeicide
    [Title Post] A blood test to detect early signs of Alzheimer’s disease has been developed.
    Comments || Link

/space

/technology

/gadgets

/futurology

  • GrillaNea
    Researchers have developed a method to eliminate scarring by prompting wounds to heal as normal skin rather than as scar tissue.
    Comments || Link
  • speckz
    Amazon could disrupt US healthcare by converting a standardized healthcare interface for its employees into a marketplace for individuals and other employers
    Comments || Link

/AskReddit

/TodayILearned

/IAmA

  • RyanRainbird3
    IamA Native American from an original Pueblo preparing for one of our biggest dances! (Ohkay Owingeh,NM) AMA!
    Comments

/Movies

  • stairapprentice
    The year that made The Matrix, Office Space, The Iron Giant, The Sixth Sense, American Beauty, The Blair Witch Project, Fight Club, and more: Looking back at 1999, before franchises took over theaters
    Comments || Link

/Sports

/eagles

  • madbah
    Dad didn’t live to see an Eagles Super Bowl, but I made sure his hat did
    Comments || Link

/books

/art

/television

/OldSchoolCool

/pics

  • dareeza
    Today February 5, 2018, the Berlin Wall is down exactly as long as it was up - 10316 days.
    Comments || Link
  • allthekos
    When the Dutch police heard that it was on this 99 year old true crime fans bucket list to be arrested. They obliged!
    Comments || Link

/gifs

/MildlyInteresting

/interestingasfuck

/MostBeautiful

/EarthPorn

/AbandonedPorn

/HistoryPorn

  • CarpetsForDixie
    Japanese American boy scouts in the Granada internment camp raise the flag to half-staff at a memorial ceremony for six "Nisei" relatives of the camp members killed in action in Italy. Colorado, 1944 [1348x919]
    Comments || Link

/SpacePorn

/Aww

/awwducational

  • remotectrl
    Owls can adjust their hearing by "tuning" the feathers in their facial disc. The concavity of the facial disc forms a circular paraboloid that collects sound waves and directs those waves towards the owl's ears.
    Comments || Link

Something New

Everyday we’ll feature a selected small subreddit and its top content. It's a fun way to include and celebrate smaller subreddits.

Today's subreddit is…

/accidentalrockwell

Its top 3 all time posts
submitted by kaunis to tldr [link] [comments]

Blockchain Online Training

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submitted by kannadhanush to u/kannadhanush [link] [comments]

PSA to new users due to reddit gold announcement: This is how Bitcoin works [Guide]

Due to the new Reddit Gold announcement it is possible that more and more users will stumble upon this subreddit and start using Bitcoin. I wrote this guide because I believe that an informed userbase is key to Bitcoin's success!
Rough summary TL;DR:
You can start using Bitcoin in a matter of seconds and, although it is a very simple process, it is strongly recommended that you learn about how it works and what is happening to your coins when you make a simple transaction.
With Bitcoin it is you who has control over the money and you need to take care of it responsibly.
The following text is a very simple guide that will introduce you to the nature of the Bitcoin network and explain what happens during a Bitcoin transaction in a very simple way.
The Story of Alice and Bob
Once upon a time... there was a reddit user called Bob who wanted to send his friend Alice some bitcoins. He knows that Alice needs 10 BTC and so he decided to send them to her.
Bob has got a Bitcoin Wallet with some bitcoins and before clicking the send button he wonders where his bitcoins are actually stored. "Is every Bitcoin a file on my computer? Or a serial number maybe?"
Bob quickly notices that this would be very inefficient. What would happen if someone was spying on his connection and intercepted this files? And what would happen if the connection dropped?
No. The way Bitcoin works is simple and elegant.
When Bob sends Alice 10 Bitcoin, what he is actually doing is digitally signing a declaration of payment. In human language this would look something like this:
"I, Bob, send the amount of 10 BTC to Alice".
Of course, Bob is also worried that someone might actually forge such a declaration in his name. He also knows that bitcoins are impossible to forge. So how exactly are they protected?
These declarations are protected by a mechanism known as Digital Signature. It is an implementation of mathematics and very strong cryptography that guarantees that only the owner can produce a valid signature. Else, the signature would be invalid and the transaction would be rejected by everybody.
Digital Signatures
You probably already know that in order to receive and send bitcoins you need a Bitcoin adress. Just like with email. And just like with email you need "your password" to be able to send and receive bitcoins.
Bitcoin Adresses are generated using mathematics and they can be generated in a decentralized manner. You don't need to login anywhere nor do you need to be online. You just need a program capable of generating such an address.
A Bitcoin address, just like your email account, is made up of two different things:
This is the key used to digitally sign a transaction and to guarantee that only the owner of the key can emit a valid transaction and thus spend those bitcoins.
Back to Alice and Bob
Once Bob's bitcoin wallet has signed this transaction, he sends it across the Bitcoin P2P network. All people who use Bitcoin and are running a Bitcoin client, are connected to each other in order to receive and send these "declarations".
Bob's transaction gets relayed from node to node. These nodes verify that the signature is valid and pass it on until, in a fraction of a second, Alice gets notified by her Bitcoin program that she got bitcoins from Bob!
"Nice!" Alice thinks. But at the same time she's worried about something else. Alice knows how the Bitcoin network works and ponders whether it was possible for Bob to make up that amount.
She knows for sure that it was Bob who sent the money because the digital signature matches. But what would have stopped Bob from writing down any arbitrary amount? What if Bob would have said "I give 1 Bazillion Bitcoins to Alice?". Whie Alice keeps thinking about it, she is unaware that the transaction that was sent to her is still hopping around the network and has a very important role to play...
Meet Miner Steve
As the transaction keeps hopping from node to node in the Bitcoin network, it will also reach this person who is playing a very peculiar game: a sort of racing game. Steve and many other people who "play" this same sort of game are called miners.
Steve's objective is to collect all transactions and publish them in a sort of ledger. In order to guarantee Bitcoin's decentralized and open nature, this must be done in a very specific way.
Miner Steve and other miners are running a program on their computer that helps them solve extremely difficult mathematical problems. Steve knows that only the miner who finds the solution to such a problem is authorized to publish the next block of this ledger that contains all the collected transactions.
All miners are competing with each other because they want to be the first to solve the problem, publish the transactions and get a Bitcoin reward for it. (Actually more than a game it's a job).
In order for Bob to have 10 BTC in the first place, he must have gotten them previously from someone else. Steve checks the part of the ledger that has already been published previously by other miners and makes sure that the transaction is there, recorded somewhere. This tells him that Bob had 10 BTC in the first place and is thus authorized to spend them. Then he just hopes that, with a little bit of luck, his computer program is the first one to find the solution.
Guess what? Today's Steve's lucky day! He finds the solution and immediately publishes all the transactions he has collected. The rest of the network verifies that the solution is correct and watches dumbfolded as Steve gets the reward. But there's no time to lose because new transactions never stop arriving and new blocks of this ledger always await to be published.
The blockchain
This ledger is known as the Blockchain. It is called a chain, because all published blocks depend on the previous. They are protected by a cryptographic function known as hash.
What if someone decided to maliciously edit a previous block and assign themselves thousands and thousands of bitcoins? Fortunately this is impossible. If one were to change one single digit, character or bit from the blockchain, all following blocks would be invalidated.
Also, notice that not even Miner Steve can maliciously edit Bob's transaction because the digital signature would not match if he tampered with it.
The openness, transparency and decentralized nature of the Bitcoin system together with the use of these protection mechanisms create a solid, strong and reliable Bitcoin network, where absolutely no one can cheat.
Back to Alice
As soon as Miner Steve published the next block of the blockchain, it was redistributed over the whole network until it reached Alice. Once it got to Alice, her Bitcoin Wallet Program checked it to see if there were any transactions that involved her and, as it was the case, made sure to inform Alice that her transaction was confirmed and is now a permanent part of the Bitcoin network. Transactions that are included in the blockchain receive a confirmation.
Notice how Alice doesn't need to be online in order to receive bitcoins. She could be offline for hours, days or years and still receive bitcoins with no problem. As soon as she gets online, her program will download the latest blocks of the blockchain and inform her of any incoming transactions.
Actually, the only thing Alice will ever need is her private key. She can even keep the private key printed on a piece of paper (paper wallet) and receive bitcoins at the same time.
Once she wants to spend them, she would import the private key to a Bitcoin Wallet Program and the program would then read the blockchain to inform her about her balance. Also, since she's got her private key she will be able to digitally sign a valid transaction and spend them.
Take a look at http://www.bitaddress.org . This is an online Bitcoin Adress generator that lets you see the private key.
About Bitcoin Security
As you can see, Bitcoin is extremely secure and absolutely no one who does not know the private key to a public address will be able to spend bitcoins without authorization.
You are the sole owner of your bitcoins and it is thus your responsibility to keep the private key to those coins safe. Many bitcoin wallets will encrypt these keys using a password you provide. This is extremely recommended.
Also make sure that your computer is free from keyloggers, trojans and malware. If you hold large amounts of coins you might want to consider creating a paper wallet, as no virus in the world can get in your drawer and printed documents.
Where does Miner Steve get the reward from?
He gets it from the voluntary fees that are included in each Bitcoin transaction. That's why he wants to collect and publish as much transactions as possible because he gets the fees associated with them.
Also, every time he publishes a block he's allowed to write his name in the new block and assign himself 25 newly minted bitcoins. This is how new bitcoins get into circulation and injected into the economy in a decentralized manner. This reward will gradually decrease until there are 21 million bitcoins in circulation, which is the maximum amount that will ever be available.
Are 21 million bitcoins enough? Yes, because they are divisible up to eight decimals. This amount of divisibility guarantees that there will never be a lack of bitcoins.
Why does it take so long for my Bitcoin Wallet to synchronize?
The first time you run a full Bitcoin Wallet, it'll need to download the Blockchain in order to read it and keep you updated on the Balance of your addresses.
If you don't like this or can't wait, you should use a light client. These are Bitcoin Wallets that connect to a server to read the blockchain and don't need to download anything.
This is it! Don't redistribute it until I've got feedback and corrected any mistakes. The whole text is Creative Commons BY - SA
Donations appreciated: 18pYzN97CxB8qfUwoBbAFYvD3rGs9rjbH3
submitted by DanielTaylor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Make 0-conf double spend infeasable by fixing the r value ahead of time, thereby putting the coins up for grabs when a second transaction is signed

I'm proposing a new kind of transaction that would make double spending 0-conf transactions uneconomical, and thus reducing the risk of double spending for the recipient.
Theory
Creating an ECDSA signature involves choosing a random number k. From this number, a value r is derived that is revealed as part of the signature. Quoting from Wikipedia:
As the standard notes, it is crucial to select different k for different signatures, otherwise the equation in step 6 can be solved for d_A, the private key
This is how a while back, coins were stolen from blockchain.info wallets because a bug in their random number generation caused the same k to be used, revealing the private key.
But we can use this to our advantage to discourage double spending. What if embedded in the unspent output is already determined what r value must be used to sign the transaction that spends those coins? That means that signing 2 different transactions that both spend the same output means revealing the private key and putting the coins up for grabs by anyone (effectively the next miner to mine a block).
This does not guarantee the recipient of a 0-conf transaction will receive their coins but it does make double spending uneconomical as the attacker would not get the coins back for themselves. This should reduce the risk of double spending for the recipient.
Implementation
We could introduce a new operation to the Bitcoin scripting language, similar to OP_CHECKSIG, but with one more input: the r value. When a transaction is created that spends such an output, the specified r must be used in the signature or the transaction is invalid.
One problem is that r must be determine by the recipient of the output while the output is created by the sender. I see 3 potential solutions for this:
  1. Use a P2SH address that has the r value embedded. The problem with this is that each output spent to this address would have to use the same r. So it is crucial that coins are spent to this address no more than once.
  2. When accepting coins, specify the r together with the address that you want to receive the coins to. For example by using the payment protocol BIP 70.
  3. When planning to do a 0-conf transaction, the sender should first move their coins into a new output that fixes the value of r in advance.
To me (2) seems the most promising.
Note: I'm no crypto expert so it would be great if someone could verify and confirm that this would work.
submitted by dskloet to btc [link] [comments]

[PSA] If You Want To Avoid Being Scammed Please Read This!

TIPS TO HELP YOU SPOT AND AVOID SCAMMERS AND TO TRADE SAFELY

The number 1 mistake people make here is doing a trade with someone who has sent a private message, we can ban scammers from commenting but we can't stop them from being able to pm you! If someone pm's you or ninja adds you on steam ask them to comment in your public thread.

/GameTrade TRADING 101

COMMON SCAM TACTICS TO LOOK OUT FOR:

  • The "I've just been scammed or scammed before" victim excuse, if thats true they should be able to link you to a report such as on /badkarma or steamrep.com, ask for proof of the scam and make sure they posted evidence. Ask what sub they reported it to then go contact the mods to verify that.
  • Trying to rush you into a trade with excuses or making the deal better if you trade quick.
  • Impersonating another user and linking a rep thread of the person they are impersonating to make them appear trustworthy, check the rep thread and check it actually links back to the same person, check the steam accounts match! (number of games, profile level, are you friends? etc).
  • Comment history suggesting they don't like scammers or calling other people scammers to make them appear genuine.
  • Offering to give you half the code or a code with missing digits first then giving you the rest afterwards.
  • Claiming they have lots of rep such as steam profile +rep comments, remember these can be manipulated, deleted or even made by friends or alt accounts. Ignore these!
  • The middleman scam, where they choose a friend as a middleman or impersonate a known middleman. Or ask you to pick a middleman or a freind and they impersonate them. We will middleman for you if the trade involves tradable steam items or gifts. Message Us Here
  • Whatever you ask for, they always have it. You ask for CS:GO on Steam, they have it! You change your mind and ask for Bitcoins, they have that!
  • They refuse to share information with you like steam profiles or accounts they care about, they insist on only doing a trade by pm or skype/kik etc.

HOW TO RESEARCH YOUR TRADING PARTNER

Reddit Search
  1. Do they have a new reddit account (30 days or under?) be extra careful with these users, they could be an already banned scammer that has made a new account. If they claim to have lot's of rep elsewhere read below about what rep you should be looking for.
  2. Do they have an older reddit account? Is there big gaps between posting? Big gaps between posting on older accounts is suspicious, could be a hacked or sold account.
  3. Are they posting on giveaways looking for freebies, or offering multiple different games to people and have no previous trade history? This is suspicious also! If they have some trading history in their comment history click the comments context and make sure the post was not removed or the user was banned.
  4. Go over to Google and search their username to see if it brings up any scam reports (for example search "joebloggs scam"), search reddit also and head over to /badkarma and search their too.
  5. Check our known scammers list and ctrl+f their username, also do the same on the Universal Scammer List
Great, everything checked out above and now your thinking about handing over your cash/item/code? You still have a few more important searches to do if the trade has anything to do with PC games/items.
SteamRep Search
  1. If you are trading PC games/items it's recommended you try and take the trade over to a chat on steam, it doesn't matter what platform games you are trading there is some good reason for this. First of all you will be able to conduct the trade in real time chat, but the most important reason for this is to search the persons steam profile on steamrep.com. Get their steam profile url after you have added them on steam and head over to steamrep.com and do a quick search, all you have to do is paste the url in and click search, if the following page has no scam alerts on it make sure you "Search SteamRep Forum" for pending/invalid or cd scam reports as pictured here and read these reports if any show up http://imgur.com/a/ARZwl this second forum search is very important.
  2. While you are on steam chatting and searching take a look at their steam profile, how many games do they own, how many hours playtime do they have? Does it look like an alternate account or a CS:GO smurf account they wouldn't care about being linked to a scam? If the profile is private ask them to unprivate it for you! Some scammers make alt accounts so you don't find any evidence of scamming in your searches, or so the scam can't be linked to their main steam account afterwards.
Note - Steamrep searches are very important, if the user is not showing as banned but you find some reports in the steamrep forum search make sure you read those reports, check who is the victim and who is the accused and go over any evidence. Even if the report is not marked as "Accepted" you might still find that there is evidence that will help you from being scammed

WHAT REP SHOULD YOU BE LOOKING FOR?

Good Rep:
  • Confirmed trades on here or other subreddits, if they only have one or two still be cautious incase they made a fake trade or a few low value trades to appear genuine before asking you for your AAA game.
  • Rep on independant rep sites such as steamtrades.com, CSGOREPorts steam group, sourceop.com etc. These are rep sites where users can't just delete any negative rep they get
Bad Rep: (rep you should straight up ignore)
  • Steam Profile +rep comments
  • A steam group the person created
  • Anything which is not independant and the user can fake, maniuplate or delete any negative rep they get
Important Notes
  • If you are linked a rep thread always navigate back to that user from the rep thread and check it's the same person and not someone who has copied someones steam profile or reddit username for example http://imgur.com/a/5wxU8
  • Remember that steam profile +rep comments mean nothing and should be ignored. Doesn't matter if they have 2 or 1,000, ignore them.

PAYPAL PAYMENTS

Paypal goods and services vs Paypal friends and family gift
  • Paypal goods and services offers some buyer protection and will allow you to dispute the payment if you get scammed VS Paypal friends and family gift will not offer buyer protection or allow you to dispute the payment
  • Paypal goods and services adds a 3% fee to the total amount VS Paypal friends and family gift will not add a fee usually unless you are sending payments overseas
  • If the person requests you send them a friends and family gift payment and they have no past trade history or "good rep" or your unsure in anyway about them you should always be using the goods and services option to send the money.
  • People who trade often will usually request you send the payment by friends and family gift, it protects them a bit better incase the buyer tries to start a false dispute. This method is usually safe enough if you have thoroughly researched them as detailed above and they have a good number of confirmed trades here or on other subreddits or independant rep sites.
Be very careful if you use PayPal. No matter what you do to protect yourself, it is almost always possible for a scammer to dispute a payment to you, and get back the money they sent you, as much as six months later. Scammers usually win these disputes because they understand better how the system works.
Understand that scammers will try and avoid any form of payment you could dispute, they prefer to ask for friends/family gift, gift cards, codes, bitcoin, steam items (gifts, keys, skins) etc.

REPORT A SCAM OR ATTEMPTED SCAM

If you think you have discovered a scammer, please report to the moderator immediately with your evidence. Please do not post comments about it on the subreddit unless you have good evidence and you feel certain.
Send us screenshots of the conversations in full, if it was reddit pm's put them in threaded form by clicking permalink on one of them, screenshot them and upload them to imgur or similar site and send us the links, don't close the steam chat box if that's where you spoke, screenshot the whole chat before you close it and send us any other information that is relevant like steam profiles or other info.
Message the Mods Here

USEFUL LINKS

submitted by Aitchy21 to GameTrade [link] [comments]

Silkroad For Dummies Part One

*DISCLAIMER: Windows 7 is my operating system. Unexpected problems may occur if you use another OS, however it may also work perfectly. I simply do not know.
Before doing anything i would recommend making a folder to keep all of these downloaded programs in so you do not lose anything. I would also recommend either grabbing a pen and pencil to write all of your passwords down, OR creating a notepad file that you put all of your passwords in and then putting that notepad file safely on a flashdrive. If you choose to use a flashdrive be sure to only use that flashdrive for keeping your passwords safe and NOTHING else. For example i would NOT put work related or college related projects on this flash drive. I would use it solely for Silkroad or other darknet browsing.
Alright the first step i would say you need to take is downloading MultiBit. It is a bitcoin wallet that allows you to store your bitcoin. Multibit is NOT directly connected to your real identity. After you've downloaded this wallet you need to add a password to your wallet. Since multibit is NOT connected to your real identity i would recommend using a completely random password with more than 15 characters using caps and noncaps letters, numbers and symbols. I would then recommend writing that password down and keeping it somewhere safe. Do not lose this password.
The next step is to make an account on coinbase. Coin base is probably the safest way to obtain bitcoin. It takes a while but it is the easiest and most secure way to purchase bitcoin. You connect your bank account to this website and then buy bitcoin which will be transferred to your account within 4-7 days. Your coinbase account IS directly connected to your identity so i would recommend using your real email, and a NEW password. It is very important that this password is DIFFERENT from your multibit password because if it is the same password someone may be able to connect your bank account with the multibit wallet. You don't want that. After you've created an account on coinbase fill out as many verifications as possible. The more, the better.
*Also, it's worth noting that if you wish to make a purchase instantly, for a slightly higher price, you can. After you've reached "Level 1" on the coinbase verification page you can instantly buy up to 100$ worth of bitcoin each day with vista credit card. If you wish to buy over 100$ worth of bitcoin instantly you can, but you must fill out more of the coinbase verification page. To reach "Level 2" on coinbase and buy up to 1000$ worth of bitcoin instantly you must wait 30 days after your first purchase and verify your identity.
The next step is to download Block Chain. Block chain is an app on the chrome browser that allows you to make your newly purchased bitcoin completely anonymous. This website is NOT connected to your real identity. I would recommend creating another NEW password that is DIFFERENT from your other two.
The next step is to download Tor. Tor allows you to connect to clearnet websites such as silkroad. The silkroad web address is currently silkroad6ownowfk.onion. If this address changes it will be updated to the sidebar on the /silkroad subreddit. Open Tor and select the "S" loacted next to the address bar. Turn scripts off. This is important.
After downloading Tor you need to download PGP (also known as GPG4win). The default installation settings include GPA unchecked. Users need to ensure that GPA is checked and installed. You need to make a "New Key". To do this open the folder you downloaded PGP in, then click on the "GPA" application. It will open up a gui that will contain all of the keys you import from now on. You need to create a New key so click on the "Keys" listing at the top of the gui (next to the file and edit listings) and select "New key...". It will ask for your name. It is important that you make up a FAKE name that is NOT connected to your real identity. Click "Forward". It will now ask for your E-mail. It is important that your make up a FAKE email that is NOT connected to your real identity. Click "Forward" again. It will ask you to create a backup copy of your key. I highly recommend doing this. It will now ask you for a password. I would recommend creating another NEW and SECURE password that is DIFFERENT from your other three. After you have created a passphrase it will ask you to backup your key to somewhere. I recommend backing it up to your PGP folder and later putting it on a flashdrive that you keep safe with your other written down passwords. After you've chosen a folder to place your backup file in you need to go to that folder and open your "secret-key" file with notepad. To do this rightclick it and select "Open with..." then browse for notepad. After you've opened your "secret key" file you will see two keys. One will be a public key that you can give to anyone and the next will be a private key that you probably will never need; however you should NEVER disclose your private key to ANYONE.
The next step is using Tor to go to the silkroad website which is currently silkroad6ownowfk.onion . Once there create an account with a NEW username, password, and PIN that is NOT connected in anyway to your real identity. Once you've created an account on this website you need to make sure the silk road vendors know your public key. Copy and paste your PUBLIC key (located in your "secret key" file) to the "settings" section on Silk Road. This section is located under your silkroad username in the top right corner. Once there copy and paste your PUBLIC key here: "your public PGP key (will show error if invalid)". After you've pasted your PUBLIC key select "Update user". After you've done this you've done almost everything you need to do to make a purchase on the silk road.
Part 2 is located here
submitted by asdfasfssdf to SilkRoad [link] [comments]

[IMPORTANT] - Please read this to help you avoid being scammed!

Spend some time to read this especially if you're new to trading

The number 1 mistake people make here is doing a trade with someone who has sent a private message, we can ban scammers from commenting but we can't stop them from being able to pm you! If someone pm's you or ninja adds you on steam ask them to comment in your public thread.

/GameTrade TRADING 101

COMMON SCAM TACTICS TO LOOK OUT FOR:

  • The "I've just been scammed or scammed before" victim excuse, if thats true they should be able to link you to a report such as on /badkarma or steamrep.com, ask for proof of the scam and make sure they posted evidence. Ask what sub they reported it to then go contact the mods to verify that.
  • Trying to rush you into a trade with excuses or making the deal better if you trade quick.
  • Impersonating another user and linking a rep thread of the person they are impersonating to make them appear trustworthy, check the rep thread and check it actually links back to the same person, check the steam accounts match! (number of games, profile level, are you friends? etc).
  • Comment history suggesting they don't like scammers or calling other people scammers to make them appear genuine.
  • Offering to give you half the code or a code with missing digits first then giving you the rest afterwards.
  • Claiming they have lots of rep such as steam profile +rep comments, remember these can be manipulated, deleted or even made by friends or alt accounts. Ignore these!
  • The middleman scam, where they choose a friend as a middleman or impersonate a known middleman. Or ask you to pick a middleman or a freind and they impersonate them. We will middleman for you if the trade involves tradable steam items or gifts. Message Us Here
  • Whatever you ask for, they always have it. You ask for CS:GO on Steam, they have it! You change your mind and ask for Bitcoins, they have that!
  • They refuse to share information with you like steam profiles or accounts they care about, they insist on only doing a trade by pm or skype/kik etc.

HOW TO RESEARCH YOUR TRADING PARTNER

Reddit Search
  1. Do they have a new reddit account (30 days or under?) be extra careful with these users, they could be an already banned scammer that has made a new account. If they claim to have lot's of rep elsewhere read below about what rep you should be looking for.
  2. Do they have an older reddit account? Is there big gaps between posting? Big gaps between posting on older accounts is suspicious, could be a hacked or sold account.
  3. Are they posting on giveaways looking for freebies, or offering multiple different games to people and have no previous trade history? This is suspicious also! If they have some trading history in their comment history click the comments context and make sure the post was not removed or the user was banned.
  4. Go over to Google and search their username to see if it brings up any scam reports (for example search "joebloggs scam"), search reddit also and head over to /badkarma and search their too.
  5. Check our known scammers list and ctrl+f their username, also do the same on the Universal Scammer List
Great, everything checked out above and now your thinking about handing over your cash/item/code? You still have a few more important searches to do if the trade has anything to do with PC games/items.
SteamRep Search
  1. If you are trading PC games/items it's recommended you try and take the trade over to a chat on steam, it doesn't matter what platform games you are trading there is some good reason for this. First of all you will be able to conduct the trade in real time chat, but the most important reason for this is to search the persons steam profile on steamrep.com. Get their steam profile url after you have added them on steam and head over to steamrep.com and do a quick search, all you have to do is paste the url in and click search, if the following page has no scam alerts on it make sure you "Search SteamRep Forum" for pending/invalid or cd scam reports as pictured here and read these reports if any show up http://imgur.com/a/ARZwl this second forum search is very important.
  2. While you are on steam chatting and searching take a look at their steam profile, how many games do they own, how many hours playtime do they have? Does it look like an alternate account or a CS:GO smurf account they wouldn't care about being linked to a scam? If the profile is private ask them to unprivate it for you! Some scammers make alt accounts so you don't find any evidence of scamming in your searches, or so the scam can't be linked to their main steam account afterwards.
Note - Steamrep searches are very important, if the user is not showing as banned but you find some reports in the steamrep forum search make sure you read those reports, check who is the victim and who is the accused and go over any evidence. Even if the report is not marked as "Accepted" you might still find that there is evidence that will help you from being scammed

WHAT REP SHOULD YOU BE LOOKING FOR?

Good Rep:
  • Confirmed trades on here or other subreddits, if they only have one or two still be cautious incase they made a fake trade or a few low value trades to appear genuine before asking you for your AAA game.
  • Rep on independant rep sites such as steamtrades.com, CSGOREPorts steam group, sourceop.com etc. These are rep sites where users can't just delete any negative rep they get
Bad Rep: (rep you should straight up ignore)
  • Steam Profile +rep comments
  • A steam group the person created
  • Anything which is not independant and the user can fake, maniuplate or delete any negative rep they get
Important Notes
  • If you are linked a rep thread always navigate back to that user from the rep thread and check it's the same person and not someone who has copied someones steam profile or reddit username for example http://imgur.com/a/5wxU8
  • Remember that steam profile +rep comments mean nothing and should be ignored. Doesn't matter if they have 2 or 1,000, ignore them.

PAYPAL PAYMENTS

Paypal goods and services vs Paypal friends and family gift
  • Paypal goods and services offers some buyer protection and will allow you to dispute the payment if you get scammed VS Paypal friends and family gift will not offer buyer protection or allow you to dispute the payment
  • Paypal goods and services adds a 3% fee to the total amount VS Paypal friends and family gift will not add a fee usually unless you are sending payments overseas
  • If the person requests you send them a friends and family gift payment and they have no past trade history or "good rep" or your unsure in anyway about them you should always be using the goods and services option to send the money.
  • People who trade often will usually request you send the payment by friends and family gift, it protects them a bit better incase the buyer tries to start a false dispute. This method is usually safe enough if you have thoroughly researched them as detailed above and they have a good number of confirmed trades here or on other subreddits or independant rep sites.
Be very careful if you use PayPal. No matter what you do to protect yourself, it is almost always possible for a scammer to dispute a payment to you, and get back the money they sent you, as much as six months later. Scammers usually win these disputes because they understand better how the system works.
Understand that scammers will try and avoid any form of payment you could dispute, they prefer to ask for friends/family gift, gift cards, codes, bitcoin, steam items (gifts, keys, skins) etc.

REPORT A SCAM OR ATTEMPTED SCAM

If you think you have discovered a scammer, please report to the moderator immediately with your evidence. Please do not post comments about it on the subreddit unless you have good evidence and you feel certain.
Send us screenshots of the conversations in full, if it was reddit pm's put them in threaded form by clicking permalink on one of them, screenshot them and upload them to imgur or similar site and send us the links, don't close the steam chat box if that's where you spoke, screenshot the whole chat before you close it and send us any other information that is relevant like steam profiles or other info.
Message the Mods Here

USEFUL LINKS

submitted by Aitchy21 to GameTrade [link] [comments]

BIP for Proof of Payment | Kalle Rosenbaum | Jun 06 2015

Kalle Rosenbaum on Jun 06 2015:
Hi
Following earlier posts on Proof of Payment I'm now proposing the following
BIP (To read it formatted instead, go to
https://github.com/kallerosenbaum/poppoc/wiki/Proof-of-Payment-BIP).
Regards,
Kalle Rosenbaum
BIP:
Title: Proof of Payment
Author: Kalle Rosenbaum <kalle at rosenbaum.se>
Status: Draft
Type: Standards Track
Created:
== Abstract ==
This BIP describes how a wallet can prove to a server that it has the
ability to sign a certain transaction.
== Motivation ==
There are several scenarios in which it would be useful to prove that you
have paid for something. For example:
any device.
this period you can upload new content to the sign whenever you like using
PoP.
PoP.
is selected among the transactions to that address. You exchange the prize
for a PoP for the winning transaction.
With Proof of Payment, these use cases can be achieved without any personal
information (user name, password, e-mail address, etc) being involved.
== Rationale ==
Desirable properties:

A PoP should be generated on demand.

It should only be usable once to avoid issues due to theft.

It should be able to create a PoP for any payment, regardless of script

type (P2SH, P2PKH, etc.).

It should prove that you have enough credentials to unlock all the inputs

of the proven transaction.

It should be easy to implement by wallets and servers to ease adoption.

Current methods of proving a payment:
the request makes some sort of proof. However, it does not meet 1, 2 or 4
and it obviously only meets 3 if the payment is made through BIP0070. Also,
there's no standard way to request/provide the proof. If standardized it
would probably meet 5.
sign the transaction. This could meet 1 and 2 but probably not 3. This is
not standardized either. 4 Could be met if designed so.
If the script type is P2SH, any satisfying script should do, just like for
a payment. For M-of-N multisig scripts, that would mean that any set of M
keys should be sufficient, not neccesarily the same set of M keys that
signed the transaction. This is important because strictly demanding the
same set of M keys would undermine the purpose of a multisig address.
== Specification ==
=== Data structure ===
A proof of payment for a transaction T, here called PoP(T), is used to
prove that one has ownership of the credentials needed to unlock all the
inputs of T. It has the exact same structure as a bitcoin transaction with
the same inputs and outputs as T and in the same order as in T. There is
also one OP_RETURN output inserted at index 0, here called the pop output.
This output must have the following format:
OP_RETURN
{|
! Field !! Size [B] !! Description
|-
| || 2 || Version, little endian, currently 0x01 0x00
|-
| || 32 || The transaction to prove
|-
| || 6 || Random data
|}
The value of the pop output is set to the same value as the transaction fee
of T. Also, if the outputs of T contains an OP_RETURN output, that output
must not be included in the PoP because there can only be one OP_RETURN
output in a transaction. The value of that OP_RETURN output is instead
added to the value of the pop output.
An illustration of the PoP data structure and its original payment is shown
below.
T
+----------------------------------------------+
|inputs | outputs |
| Value | Value Script |
+----------------------------------------------+
|input0 1 | 0 pay to A |
|input1 3 | 2 OP_RETURN |
|input2 4 | 1 pay to B |
| | 4 pay to C |
+----------------------------------------------+
PoP(T)
+----------------------------------------------------------+
|inputs | outputs |
| Value | Value Script |
+----------------------------------------------------------+
|input0 1 | 3 OP_RETURN |
|input1 3 | 0 pay to A |
|input2 4 | 1 pay to B |
| | 4 pay to C |
+----------------------------------------------------------+
The PoP is signed using the same signing process that is used for bitcoin
transactions.
The purpose of the nonce is to make it harder to use a stolen PoP; Once the
PoP has reached the server, that PoP is useless since the server will
generate a new nonce for every PoP request.
Since a PoP is indistinguishable from a bitcoin transaction, there is a
risk that it, accidently or maliciously, enters the bitcoin p2p network. If
T is still unconfirmed, or if a reorg takes place, chances are that PoP(T)
ends up in a block, invalidating T. Therefore it is important that the
outputs of the PoP are the same as in T. The zero transaction fee in PoP(T)
is to minimize the incentives for miners to select PoP(T) for inclusion.
=== Process ===

A proof of payment request is sent from the server to the wallet. The PoP

request contains:

a random nonce

a destination where to send the PoP, for example a https URL

data hinting the wallet which transaction to create a proof for. For

example:

* txid, if known by the server

* PaymentRequest.PaymentDetails.merchant_data (in case of a BIP0070

payment)

* amount, label, message or other information from a BIP0021 URL

The wallet identifies a transaction T, if possible. Otherwise it asks the

user to select among the ones that match the hints in 1.iii.

The wallet creates an unsigned PoP (UPoP) for T, and asks the user to

sign it.

The user confirms

The UPoP(T) is signed by the wallet, creating PoP(T).

The PoP is sent to the destination in 1.ii.

The server receiving the PoP validates it and responds with “valid” or

“invalid”.

The wallet displays the response in some way to the user.

'''Remarks:'''
  • The method of transferring the PoP request at step 1 is not specified
here. Instead that is specified in separate specifications. See [btcpop
scheme BIP](btcpop scheme BIP).
  • The nonce must be randomly generated by the server for every new PoP
request.
=== Validating a PoP ===
The server needs to validate the PoP and reply with "valid" or "invalid".
That process is outlined below. If any step fails, the validation is
aborted and "invalid" is returned:

Check the format of the PoP. It must pass normal transaction checks,

except that the inputs may already be spent.

Check the PoP output at index 0. It must conform to the OP_RETURN output

format outlined above.

Check that the rest of the outputs exactly corresponds to the outputs of

T and that they appear in the same order as in T. An exception to this is
that any OP_RETURN outputs of T must not be included in the PoP. All output
value from the OP_RETURN must instead be included in the PoP output.

Check that the nonce is the same as the one you requested.

Check that the inputs of the PoP are exactly the same as in transaction

T, and in the same order.

Check the scripts of all the inputs, as would be done on a normal

transaction.

Check that the txid in the PoP output is the transaction you actually

want proof for. If you don’t know exactly what transaction you want proof
for, check that the transaction actually pays for the product/service you
deliver.

Return "valid".

== Security considerations ==
  • Someone can intercept the PoP-request and change the PoP destination so
that the user sends the PoP to the bad actor.
  • Someone can intercept the PoP-request and change for example the txid to
trick the user to sign a PoP for another transaction than the intended.
This can of course be avoided if the user is actually looking at the UPoP
before signing it. The bad actor could also set hints for a transaction,
existing or not, that the user didn’t make, resulting in a broken service.
  • Someone can steal a PoP and try to use the service hoping to get a
matching nonce. Probability per try: 1/(248). The server should have a
mechanism for detecting a brute force attack of this kind, or at least slow
down the process by delaying the PoP request by some 100 ms or so.
  • Even if a wallet has no funds it might still be valuable as a generator
for PoPs. This makes it important to keep the security of the wallet after
it has been emptied.
  • Transaction malleability may cause the server to have another transaction
id than the wallet for the payment. In that case the wallet will not be
able to prove the transaction for the server. Wallets should not rely on
the transaction id of the outgoing transaction. Instead it should listen
for the transaction on the network and put that in its list of transactions.
The first two issues are the same attack vector as for traditional, ie
BIP0021, bitcoin payments. They could be mitigated by using secure
connections.
== Reference implementation ==
[https://github.com/kallerosenbaum/poppoc poppoc on GitHub]
[https://github.com/kallerosenbaum/wallet Mycelium fork on GitHub]
== References ==
[https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/blob/mastebip-0021.mediawiki BIP0021]:
URI Scheme
[https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/blob/mastebip-0070.mediawiki BIP0070]:
Payment Protocol
[[btcpop scheme BIP]]
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