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Microservices: Service-to-service communication
The following excerpt about microservice communication is from the new Microsoft eBook, Architecting Cloud-Native .NET Apps for Azure. The book is freely available for online reading and in a downloadable .PDF format at https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/architecture/cloud-native/ Microservice Guidance When constructing a cloud-native application, you'll want to be sensitive to how back-end services communicate with each other. Ideally, the less inter-service communication, the better. However, avoidance isn't always possible as back-end services often rely on one another to complete an operation. There are several widely accepted approaches to implementing cross-service communication. The type of communication interaction will often determine the best approach. Consider the following interaction types:
Query – when a calling microservice requires a response from a called microservice, such as, "Hey, give me the buyer information for a given customer Id."
Command – when the calling microservice needs another microservice to execute an action but doesn't require a response, such as, "Hey, just ship this order."
Event – when a microservice, called the publisher, raises an event that state has changed or an action has occurred. Other microservices, called subscribers, who are interested, can react to the event appropriately. The publisher and the subscribers aren't aware of each other.
Microservice systems typically use a combination of these interaction types when executing operations that require cross-service interaction. Let's take a close look at each and how you might implement them.
Many times, one microservice might need to query another, requiring an immediate response to complete an operation. A shopping basket microservice may need product information and a price to add an item to its basket. There are a number of approaches for implementing query operations.
One option for implementing this scenario is for the calling back-end microservice to make direct HTTP requests to the microservices it needs to query, shown in Figure 4-8. Figure 4-8. Direct HTTP communication While direct HTTP calls between microservices are relatively simple to implement, care should be taken to minimize this practice. To start, these calls are always synchronous and will block the operation until a result is returned or the request times outs. What were once self-contained, independent services, able to evolve independently and deploy frequently, now become coupled to each other. As coupling among microservices increase, their architectural benefits diminish. Executing an infrequent request that makes a single direct HTTP call to another microservice might be acceptable for some systems. However, high-volume calls that invoke direct HTTP calls to multiple microservices aren't advisable. They can increase latency and negatively impact the performance, scalability, and availability of your system. Even worse, a long series of direct HTTP communication can lead to deep and complex chains of synchronous microservices calls, shown in Figure 4-9: Figure 4-9. Chaining HTTP queries You can certainly imagine the risk in the design shown in the previous image. What happens if Step #3 fails? Or Step #8 fails? How do you recover? What if Step #6 is slow because the underlying service is busy? How do you continue? Even if all works correctly, think of the latency this call would incur, which is the sum of the latency of each step. The large degree of coupling in the previous image suggests the services weren't optimally modeled. It would behoove the team to revisit their design.
Materialized View pattern
A popular option for removing microservice coupling is the Materialized View pattern. With this pattern, a microservice stores its own local, denormalized copy of data that's owned by other services. Instead of the Shopping Basket microservice querying the Product Catalog and Pricing microservices, it maintains its own local copy of that data. This pattern eliminates unnecessary coupling and improves reliability and response time. The entire operation executes inside a single process. We explore this pattern and other data concerns in Chapter 5.
Service Aggregator Pattern
Another option for eliminating microservice-to-microservice coupling is an Aggregator microservice, shown in purple in Figure 4-10. Figure 4-10. Aggregator microservice The pattern isolates an operation that makes calls to multiple back-end microservices, centralizing its logic into a specialized microservice. The purple checkout aggregator microservice in the previous figure orchestrates the workflow for the Checkout operation. It includes calls to several back-end microservices in a sequenced order. Data from the workflow is aggregated and returned to the caller. While it still implements direct HTTP calls, the aggregator microservice reduces direct dependencies among back-end microservices.
Another approach for decoupling synchronous HTTP messages is a Request-Reply Pattern, which uses queuing communication. Communication using a queue is always a one-way channel, with a producer sending the message and consumer receiving it. With this pattern, both a request queue and response queue are implemented, shown in Figure 4-11. Figure 4-11. Request-reply pattern Here, the message producer creates a query-based message that contains a unique correlation ID and places it into a request queue. The consuming service dequeues the messages, processes it and places the response into the response queue with the same correlation ID. The producer service dequeues the message, matches it with the correlation ID and continues processing. We cover queues in detail in the next section.
Another type of communication interaction is a command. A microservice may need another microservice to perform an action. The Ordering microservice may need the Shipping microservice to create a shipment for an approved order. In Figure 4-12, one microservice, called a Producer, sends a message to another microservice, the Consumer, commanding it to do something. Figure 4-12. Command interaction with a queue Most often, the Producer doesn't require a response and can fire-and-forget the message. If a reply is needed, the Consumer sends a separate message back to Producer on another channel. A command message is best sent asynchronously with a message queue. supported by a lightweight message broker. In the previous diagram, note how a queue separates and decouples both services. A message queue is an intermediary construct through which a producer and consumer pass a message. Queues implement an asynchronous, point-to-point messaging pattern. The Producer knows where a command needs to be sent and routes appropriately. The queue guarantees that a message is processed by exactly one of the consumer instances that are reading from the channel. In this scenario, either the producer or consumer service can scale out without affecting the other. As well, technologies can be disparate on each side, meaning that we might have a Java microservice calling a Golang microservice. In chapter 1, we talked about backing services. Backing services are ancillary resources upon which cloud-native systems depend. Message queues are backing services. The Azure cloud supports two types of message queues that your cloud-native systems can consume to implement command messaging: Azure Storage Queues and Azure Service Bus Queues.
Azure Storage Queues
Azure storage queues offer a simple queueing infrastructure that is fast, affordable, and backed by Azure storage accounts. Azure Storage Queues feature a REST-based queuing mechanism with reliable and persistent messaging. They provide a minimal feature set, but are inexpensive and store millions of messages. Their capacity ranges up to 500 TB. A single message can be up to 64 KB in size. You can access messages from anywhere in the world via authenticated calls using HTTP or HTTPS. Storage queues can scale out to large numbers of concurrent clients to handle traffic spikes. That said, there are limitations with the service:
Message order isn't guaranteed.
A message can only persist for seven days before it's automatically removed.
Support for state management, duplicate detection, or transactions isn't available.
Azure Service Bus Queues
For more complex messaging requirements, consider Azure Service Bus queues. Sitting atop a robust message infrastructure, Azure Service Bus supports a brokered messaging model. Messages are reliably stored in a broker (the queue) until received by the consumer. The queue guarantees First-In/First-Out (FIFO) message delivery, respecting the order in which messages were added to the queue. The size of a message can be much larger, up to 256 KB. Messages are persisted in the queue for an unlimited period of time. Service Bus supports not only HTTP-based calls, but also provides full support for the AMQP protocol. AMQP is an open-standard across vendors that supports a binary protocol and higher degrees of reliability. Service Bus provides a rich set of features, including transaction support and a duplicate detection feature. The queue guarantees "at most once delivery" per message. It automatically discards a message that has already been sent. If a producer is in doubt, it can resend the same message, and Service Bus guarantees that only one copy will be processed. Duplicate detection frees you from having to build additional infrastructure plumbing. Two more enterprise features are partitioning and sessions. A conventional Service Bus queue is handled by a single message broker and stored in a single message store. But, Service Bus Partitioning spreads the queue across multiple message brokers and message stores. The overall throughput is no longer limited by the performance of a single message broker or messaging store. A temporary outage of a messaging store doesn't render a partitioned queue unavailable. Service Bus Sessions provide a way to group-related messages. Imagine a workflow scenario where messages must be processed together and the operation completed at the end. To take advantage, sessions must be explicitly enabled for the queue and each related messaged must contain the same session ID. However, there are some important caveats: Service Bus queues size is limited to 80 GB, which is much smaller than what's available from store queues. Additionally, Service Bus queues incur a base cost and charge per operation. Figure 4-14 outlines the high-level architecture of a Service Bus queue. Figure 4-14. Service Bus queue In the previous figure, note the point-to-point relationship. Two instances of the same provider are enqueuing messages into a single Service Bus queue. Each message is consumed by only one of three consumer instances on the right. Next, we discuss how to implement messaging where different consumers may all be interested the same message.
Message queuing is an effective way to implement communication where a producer can asynchronously send a consumer a message. However, what happens when many different consumers are interested in the same message? A dedicated message queue for each consumer wouldn't scale well and would become difficult to manage. To address this scenario, we move to the third type of message interaction, the event. One microservice announces that an action had occurred. Other microservices, if interested, react to the action, or event. Eventing is a two-step process. For a given state change, a microservice publishes an event to a message broker, making it available to any other interested microservice. The interested microservice is notified by subscribing to the event in the message broker. You use the Publish/Subscribe pattern to implement event-based communication. Figure 4-15 shows a shopping basket microservice publishing an event with two other microservices subscribing to it. Figure 4-15. Event-Driven messaging Note the event bus component that sits in the middle of the communication channel. It's a custom class that encapsulates the message broker and decouples it from the underlying application. The ordering and inventory microservices independently operate the event with no knowledge of each other, nor the shopping basket microservice. When the registered event is published to the event bus, they act upon it. With eventing, we move from queuing technology to topics. A topic is similar to a queue, but supports a one-to-many messaging pattern. One microservice publishes a message. Multiple subscribing microservices can choose to receive and act upon that message. Figure 4-16 shows a topic architecture. Figure 4-16. Topic architecture In the previous figure, publishers send messages to the topic. At the end, subscribers receive messages from subscriptions. In the middle, the topic forwards messages to subscriptions based on a set of rules, shown in dark blue boxes. Rules act as a filter that forward specific messages to a subscription. Here, a "GetPrice" event would be sent to the price and logging Subscriptions as the logging subscription has chosen to receive all messages. A "GetInformation" event would be sent to the information and logging subscriptions. The Azure cloud supports two different topic services: Azure Service Bus Topics and Azure EventGrid.
Azure Service Bus Topics
Sitting on top of the same robust brokered message model of Azure Service Bus queues are Azure Service Bus Topics. A topic can receive messages from multiple independent publishers and send messages to up to 2,000 subscribers. Subscriptions can be dynamically added or removed at runtime without stopping the system or recreating the topic. Many advanced features from Azure Service Bus queues are also available for topics, including Duplicate Detection and Transaction support. By default, Service Bus topics are handled by a single message broker and stored in a single message store. But, Service Bus Partitioning scales a topic by spreading it across many message brokers and message stores. Scheduled Message Delivery tags a message with a specific time for processing. The message won't appear in the topic before that time. Message Deferral enables you to defer a retrieval of a message to a later time. Both are commonly used in workflow processing scenarios where operations are processed in a particular order. You can postpone processing of received messages until prior work has been completed. Service Bus topics are a robust and proven technology for enabling publish/subscribe communication in your cloud-native systems.
Azure Event Grid
While Azure Service Bus is a battle-tested messaging broker with a full set of enterprise features, Azure Event Grid is the new kid on the block. At first glance, Event Grid may look like just another topic-based messaging system. However, it's different in many ways. Focused on event-driven workloads, it enables real-time event processing, deep Azure integration, and an open-platform - all on serverless infrastructure. It's designed for contemporary cloud-native and serverless applications As a centralized eventing backplane, or pipe, Event Grid reacts to events inside Azure resources and from your own services. Event notifications are published to an Event Grid Topic, which, in turn, routes each event to a subscription. Subscribers map to subscriptions and consume the events. Like Service Bus, Event Grid supports a filtered subscriber model where a subscription sets rule for the events it wishes to receive. Event Grid provides fast throughput with a guarantee of 10 million events per second enabling near real-time delivery - far more than what Azure Service Bus can generate. A sweet spot for Event Grid is its deep integration into the fabric of Azure infrastructure. An Azure resource, such as Cosmos DB, can publish built-in events directly to other interested Azure resources - without the need for custom code. Event Grid can publish events from an Azure Subscription, Resource Group, or Service, giving developers fine-grained control over the lifecycle of cloud resources. However, Event Grid isn't limited to Azure. It's an open platform that can consume custom HTTP events published from applications or third-party services and route events to external subscribers. When publishing and subscribing to native events from Azure resources, no coding is required. With simple configuration, you can integrate events from one Azure resource to another leveraging built-in plumbing for Topics and Subscriptions. Figure 4-17 shows the anatomy of Event Grid. Figure 4-17. Event Grid anatomy A major difference between EventGrid and Service Bus is the underlying message exchange pattern. Service Bus implements an older style pull model in which the downstream subscriber actively polls the topic subscription for new messages. On the upside, this approach gives the subscriber full control of the pace at which it processes messages. It controls when and how many messages to process at any given time. Unread messages remain in the subscription until processed. A significant shortcoming is the latency between the time the event is generated and the polling operation that pulls that message to the subscriber for processing. Also, the overhead of constant polling for the next event consumes resources and money. EventGrid, however, is different. It implements a push model in which events are sent to the EventHandlers as received, giving near real-time event delivery. It also reduces cost as the service is triggered only when it's needed to consume an event – not continually as with polling. That said, an event handler must handle the incoming load and provide throttling mechanisms to protect itself from becoming overwhelmed. Many Azure services that consume these events, such as Azure Functions and Logic Apps provide automatic autoscaling capabilities to handle increased loads. Event Grid is a fully managed serverless cloud service. It dynamically scales based on your traffic and charges you only for your actual usage, not pre-purchased capacity. The first 100,000 operations per month are free – operations being defined as event ingress (incoming event notifications), subscription delivery attempts, management calls, and filtering by subject. With 99.99% availability, EventGrid guarantees the delivery of an event within a 24-hour period, with built-in retry functionality for unsuccessful delivery. Undelivered messages can be moved to a "dead-letter" queue for resolution. Unlike Azure Service Bus, Event Grid is tuned for fast performance and doesn't support features like ordered messaging, transactions, and sessions.
Streaming messages in the Azure cloud
Azure Service Bus and Event Grid provide great support for applications that expose single, discrete events like a new document has been inserted into a Cosmos DB. But, what if your cloud-native system needs to process a stream of related events? Event streams are more complex. They're typically time-ordered, interrelated, and must be processed as a group. Azure Event Hub is a data streaming platform and event ingestion service that collects, transforms, and stores events. It's fine-tuned to capture streaming data, such as continuous event notifications emitted from a telemetry context. The service is highly scalable and can store and process millions of events per second. Shown in Figure 4-18, it's often a front door for an event pipeline, decoupling ingest stream from event consumption. Figure 4-18. Azure Event Hub Event Hub supports low latency and configurable time retention. Unlike queues and topics, Event Hubs keep event data after it's been read by a consumer. This feature enables other data analytic services, both internal and external, to replay the data for further analysis. Events stored in event hub are only deleted upon expiration of the retention period, which is one day by default, but configurable. Event Hub supports common event publishing protocols including HTTPS and AMQP. It also supports Kafka 1.0. Existing Kafka applications can communicate with Event Hub using the Kafka protocol providing an alternative to managing large Kafka clusters. Many open-source cloud-native systems embrace Kafka. Event Hubs implements message streaming through a partitioned consumer model in which each consumer only reads a specific subset, or partition, of the message stream. This pattern enables tremendous horizontal scale for event processing and provides other stream-focused features that are unavailable in queues and topics. A partition is an ordered sequence of events that is held in an event hub. As newer events arrive, they're added to the end of this sequence. Figure 4-19 shows partitioning in an Event Hub. Figure 4-19. Event Hub partitioning Instead of reading from the same resource, each consumer group reads across a subset, or partition, of the message stream. For cloud-native applications that must stream large numbers of events, Azure Event Hub can be a robust and affordable solution. About the Author: Rob Vettor is a Principal Cloud-Native Architect for the Microservice Enterprise Service Group. Reach out to Rob at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) orhttps://thinkingincloudnative.com/weclome-to-cloud-native/
The Binary Book Scam Is One of the Most Popular Options Scam and here’s everything you need to know about it
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The Binary Book Scam extorted millions from many naive investors and scammed them
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https://preview.redd.it/kkhj7agzz5251.png?width=875&format=png&auto=webp&s=f47007e7923d8f40d98e3ba7d08a31c3729a0bd3 Hello everyone, thank you for your continued interest and support. In the past two weeks, various tasks of TokenClub have been progressing steadily. The product development and community operation progress this week are as follows: 1. TokenClub Events 1)TokenClub & 499Block reached strategic cooperation in live broadcasting On May 28th, TokenClub and 499Block reached a strategic cooperation to jointly build a live broadcast ecosystem in the vertical field of blockchain. 2)520e events When 520 comes, TokenClub launches live interactive interaction. 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The cross-border AMA Solitaire + popular day group anchor live video sharing, including Binance Co-founder He Yi, TRON founder Sun Yuchen, Hobbit HBTC founder Ju Jianhua, OSL chairman Dave, BlockVC founding partner Xu Yingkai, Outlier Ventures founder amie Burke, Bitribe founder SKY, CryptoBriefing CEO Han Kao, Huobi Group / Vice President Global Markets and Dozens of blockchain leaders from home and abroad, such as Ciara, the business leader, all appeared on the scene, and 499Block became a popular beauty angel group to help the interactive host. https://preview.redd.it/ga6ey51b06251.png?width=1280&format=png&auto=webp&s=d94cc1a03640538ec1e99443c8cbb7a5e77596de On May 20, Sun Shuang, senior researcher of Guosheng Securities Blockchain Research Institute, Song Shuangjie, Jin Tong, CEO of Tongzhengtong Research Institute were jointly invited by Lingang Xinyefang, Lingang Innovation Management School, and Binance China Blockchain Research Institute. Tian Bingguang Senior Partner Yu Bingguang, Binance China Blockchain Research Institute Chief Researcher Jiang Jinze, Vice President of Digital Assets Research Institute Meng Yan, and many experts talked about the “Critical Digital RMB DCEP” in the live broadcast, one A feast of intertwined thoughts is worth watching again! On May 21st, Ocean Liao Yangyang, the founder of Block 101 Seven Seven Dialogue Force Field, focused on the “big enlightenment era of digital assets”, Ocean shared with us his entrepreneurial experience, the first pot of gold, public chain, currency circle and Analysis of the current market. Regarding the future of Bitcoin, Ocean feels that he can work hard towards the direction of digital gold and become a substitute or supplement for gold. He is determined to see more, because the ceiling of the entire industry is very high, and he still cannot see its end point. The index level is rising, far from being over. On May 22, “In the name of the Pizza Festival, we came to a different live broadcast” Bringing Goods “”, which was organized by the girls in the 101-day group of the block: June 6, July 7, Sisi, Yingge, Qianjiangyue , Dialogue: Binance First Sister, Binance C2C-Kathy, Binance OTC-Coco, Binance Contract & Options-Justin, Binance VIP-Jennifer, Binance Broker-Jess, Binance Mining Pool-Denny. We have explained to us one by one about C2C, OTC, contract options, etc. If you are interested, please move to the live room. https://preview.redd.it/a9am0j5e06251.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=7f8d0e80492027a000d4e719ec727b56cc27d94f On May 22, Block 101 Sisi Dialogue Xu Zhifeng, executive deputy director of the Blockchain Research Center of Harbin Institute of Technology, shared the theme: “Strategy of Great Powers: Seizing New Highlands of Blockchain Technology”. He expressed his views on his own currency circle experience, entrepreneurship, blockchain technology, DECP, etc. Xu Zhifeng is very optimistic about the future development of blockchain. He said: “Ten years later, blockchain will become a very common industry. We are the Internet industry and have never changed.” On May 23, the old Chinese doctor Zao Shen from the coin circle went online ~ The theme of this issue: If you want to be short, you must be able to sing first, and if you want to be long, you must be patient. If the meal is not fragrant, the game is not good, and the happiness of the past has drifted into the distance, just because the daily reading is still a loss, and the head is hurt. Don’t panic, the old Chinese doctor Zao Shen of the currency circle will adopt the Trinity Interventional Therapy and precise care to regenerate life. Don’t move quickly to the live room to see what “therapy” is. On May 25, Block 101, July 7th conversation with dForce founder Yang Mindao, talked about “DeFi opportunities and challenges.” Yang Mindao believes that the four biggest benefits of DeFi are: programmability; non-custodial nature; non-licensing; composability. He believes that the current public chain market is seriously homogenized, and the most promising public chain is Ethereum. Ethereum is the best and largest in terms of developer group, ecology, and technological evolution, and can absorb the advantages of each public chain. At the same time, he is also extremely optimistic about DeFi, “DeFi application value is gradually verified, and the value of this type of token will gradually become more prominent.” On May 26th, Mars Finance co-founder Shang Silin Hardcore Dialogue Cobo & Yuchi co-founder Shenyu and well-known investor Xu Zhe. The trend of “financialization” in the digital asset industry is becoming more and more obvious, and the friends of miners need to master more and more skills. Unveiling the mystery of hedging for everyone. On May 26th, Nova Superstar Dialogue Phase 13 focused on the Silicon Valley star project CasperLabs, specially invited CasperLabs CEO Mrinal Manohar, CasperLabs co-founder Scott Walker, Rock Tree chairman Omer Ozden, and Nova Club incubation team leader Water Capital Partners Zheng Yushan, discuss CasperLbs together. On May 26, Block 101 Sisi talked with the founder of the Rolling Stone Miner, Alex Lam, and took us into the “post-worker life” of a PhD in finance. Alex shared the reasons for entering the coin circle, the first pot of gold, mining, pitted pits, investment experience and opportunities in the digital currency industry. Alex said: Bitcoin exceeds US $ 100,000, and it will be in the second half of next year or the year after. On May 27th, Block 101 Yingge talked with BitUniverse founder Chen Yong and shared the theme: “Who” needs grid trading. Chen Yong mainly introduced the currency trading tool of Bitcoin. In his view, grid trading has changed an investor’s concept-from stud into a batch of positions and positions. Regarding the price of Bitcoin, Chen Yong believes that the price of Bitcoin may reach one hundred thousand dollars around 2030. On May 28, Block 101 Binance Mining Pool Wu Di talked to Mandai Wang Mengdie, founder of Planet Daily Odaily, to learn more about the process of “media entrepreneurs marching into the blockchain from venture capital circles”. Mandy believes that the core competence in the media industry is high-quality original content, which is the most basic but difficult to stick to. The initial focus of entering the mixed media industry of the dragon and dragon is to focus and amplify value. On May 29th, Block 101 Qianjiangyue Dialogue Hellen Tu, the project leader of Binance Stablecoin BUSD project, talked with everyone about the stablecoin “Life and Death”, Hellen shared the stablecoin in detail, and published his own the opinion of. For details, please move to the live room. On May 30th, Zaoshen came to share the theme: Dongfeng blowing, bullets flying, unlimited chase? In this issue, Zao Shen shared with you the recent international financial situation and various major events in the United States in the past week, which extended to the impact on the currency circle and answered various questions about investment strategies. Friends who want to know more details can move to the live room of Zao Shen. 3.TokenClub operation data -Live data: 13 live broadcasts in the past two weeks, with over 800,000 views. TokenClub hosted a total of 870 live broadcasts with a total of 45.06 million views. -Binary trade data: In the past two weeks, guess the rise and fall to participate in a total of 1268 times, the amount of participation exceeded 2 million TCT. At present, it is guessed that the rise and fall function has participated in a total of 1.11 million times, with a cumulative participation amount of 498 million TCT. -Chat data: In the past two weeks, a total of 19271 messages have been generated. A total of 4.85 milliom messages have been launched since the function was launched. -Mini-game data: The mini-game has participated in a total of 4212 times in the past two weeks. A total of 1,66 million self-functions have been online. -Cut leeks game data together: Since the game was launched, the total number of user participation in the game was 962612 TCT total consumption was 6,27 million gift certificate total consumption was 15,95million and TCT mining output was 161496. -TokenClub KOL data: Over the past two weeks, the total reading volume of the BTCGrandpa article has been viewed by more than 300,000 people. -Social media data: At present, the number of Weibo official accounts is 18033 and the number of Twitter followers is 1332 and we have opened the official Medium account this week, welcome to follow. -Telegram official group data: In the past 2 weeks, there were 238 chats in the group, and the total number of Telegram official groups is currently 2906. -Medium data: Medium official account u/TokenClub has published 5 excellent articles, official announcements and updates are published in English, welcome to follow. 4.Communities 1)Overseas Community TokenClub held an event for forwarding Twitter and telegram group chats for overseas users. Bitcoin halved in less than two weeks, overseas users are more active in the telegram group, and some friends are more concerned about Binance Block 101 live broadcast, aggregation exchange, TCT usage and other issues, the administrator responded in time.On May 12th, when Bitcoin was halved, TokenClub organized a forwarding Twitter, telegram group chat prize event and participating in a live question asking interactive prize event for overseas users. There are many live broadcast events in the near future. The live broadcast poster information will be released to overseas users as soon as possible. The follow-up TokenClub will translate and broadcast high-quality live broadcast content to Twitter and Medium. Bitcoin halved, overseas users are more active in the telegram group, and some partners are more concerned about block 101 live broadcast, bitcoin future price trend, TCT usage and other issues, the administrator responded in time in the group. https://preview.redd.it/2nrknnyo06251.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=fb98b385c0caf7e65c7b3b2bb1edd782ec126905 2)Domestic community Sweet Orange Club Weekly News Last Friday, a holiday, the community opened the red envelope rain event, and brought a sincere gift to everyone while relaxing in the holiday. At the same time, it also sent the most sincere blessings to all mothers in the community on Mother’s Day. Thank you for your long-term support and help to the Orange Club community. Hundred-day scheduled investment event (Phase II) The fourth week of the second 100-day fixed investment plan held this week has been awarded, and everyone is still very active in this event. This week, the Bitcoin halving market was also opened in advance. The small partners participating in the fixed investment should now have a certain floating win, so we adopt the correct cycle investment strategy to believe that it can bring unexpected benefits to everyone. Sign in the lottery. On the evening of May 3rd and May 10th, TCT Fortune Free Academy carried out the 51st and 52nd week sign-in sweepstakes, and rewarded the small TCT partners who had always insisted on signing in. In these two sign-in sweepstakes, the lucky friends received 20–180TCT as a reward. In addition, during the lucky draw, the college friends also actively expressed their opinions on the topic of this year’s bull market. The Leek Paradise Community Conference will continue as usual every Sunday at 20:00. During the conference, members will discuss recent hot topics, including gifts and blessings for Mother ’s Day, and the halving of Bitcoin everyone is paying attention to. At the end, the friends in the group also showed a rare enthusiasm at the first sight. It seems that the market still affects the mood. The members routinely started a red envelope rain to cheer for the participating partners and encourage everyone to maintain patience and confidence. Of course, at the same time, we are encouraging ourselves to see the community meeting next week. Come on! TokenClub volunteer community, sign in red envelopes every day, as long as you sign in every day, you can get good benefits, friends join us quickly! In the past two weeks, the community has conducted active partners. Volunteer community: Change to the currency circle consultation and pass the analysis of Grandma Coin and Panda analysts, support TokenClub in action, and continue to vote for TCT. In the last month, we have worked hard to learn the rain god’s strategy. We have doubled the coins in our hands. The community WeChat group has recently injected fresh students. We look forward to more people joining! Volunteer community, will continue to work hard for TokenClub TCT has been listed on Binance、Okex、Gate.io、ZB-M、MXC、Biki、Coinex、BigOne、Coinbene、Cybex、SWFT、Loopring、Rootrex etc. TokenClub website: www.tokenclub.com Telegram：https://t.me/token\_club
[LONG] My Story of Disillusionment with and Disappointment in the World and Myself
Intro. This might be a long one. I hope someone reads the thing, I put like 3 hours into writing it. A brief story of my life and how it all led up to this moment, where I am disillusioned with my self-image, my life choices, and certain aspects of the world, and have no idea what to do next. Warning: this whole thing might be a little depressing to read. Childhood. I am a 20yo Russian male. During my childhood, I was made to believe that I am capable of doing something great and doing better than anyone. At the same time I developed a very non-conformist life stance and very often rejected things and ideas simply because they were too popular for my taste, and I couldn't feel special whilst enjoying them. Of course, in turn, society rejected me, as it does with anyone who doesn't play by the rules. Oh well. My only redeeming quality was that I considered myself pretty smart. Which is even easier to assume, when at the same time you think that you're different from everyone else. Now, I know that to some extent, I was indeed smarter than most people in certain areas. Unlike most people I knew back then, often with bare minimum efforts I was able to maintain near perfect grades at school. I was also enjoying learning new things and reading more than an average person. So, let's just say, I had a basis to assume I was a smart dude. I wasn't happy and content with my life, though. I never had real friends, because I only hung out with people when they were my classmates/roommates/co-workers, and after we parted ways, I rarely if ever contacted them afterwards. I always enjoyed doing things you usually do in solitude more, because when I was alone, I wouldn't be afraid that someone could hurt me for being different. Because of that, I was never in a romantic relationship. High School. Still, life was going okay. By the end of school, I kind of accepted my social deficiency and I wanted to focus on improving the world and become a successful person - for myself. I was facing a dilemma, though. Despite the fact that I was doing great in school, the idea of having to invest four years of my time into studying something really specific, and then having to work another 20-30 years on the same job was terrifying, because I had no idea what I liked to do! Nothing seemed interesting to me, I didn't have a passion for doing anything... Thanks to my video game addiction, which made me lazy as fuck, probably. I also needed to meet my criteria for success with my future job, which included being financially successful. I grew up in top 1% income family, so... I always felt the pressure to outperform or at least match my parents' income. Enter trading. My dad discovered investing several years ago (we don't live in US, so most of the people aren't as financially savvy, so he never thought about investing before then). I was always curious about financial independence and markets, but now I was seeing it all done in front of me, I realized that it might be a good opportunity to make a lot of money and become successful without being socially adept, which is something absolutely required in business or politics. So, I asked my father to open a brokerage account for me in the US, and started swing trading (trading in weekly/monthly time frames). I could only trade slow and small because of the trade restrictions put on accounts <$25k and <21yo in the US. Still, it was going well, but in hindsight I was just lucky to be there during a great bull market. Even before I thought trading and more importantly investing were the ways smart people make money. I thought simply because I was conventionally smart, I had a talent or an innate ability to pick innovative stocks and do venture investing when I grow some capital. I truly believed in that long before I was introduced to financial markets, I believed that my surface level understanding of multiple areas of cutting edge and emerging technology would give me an edge compared to all the other investors. US Community College and Return Back. In the end, I've decided I want to go to a US community college and study finance and become a trader and later an investor, but I didn't want to work for a fund or something like that (lazy ass). I wanted to use my knowledge and skill and my own money to grow my net worth and make a living. I didn't really like the process of trading, I just needed the money to live by while I was trying to figure out what else to do with my life. Because I thought I were smart, I thought this would come easily to me. Boy was I wrong. From the nicest of conditions in my hometown, I was suddenly moved into a foreign setting, on the other side of the planet away form my family and mates, with a video game addiction and laziness that ruined my daily routine and studying as well. The fact that I didn't like my major was not helping. My grades fell from A- in the first quarter to C+ in the last. I gained +30% from my normal weight. I was stressed out, not going outside and sitting at my computer desk for days at a time, skipping all the classes I could if they were not absolutely essential for my grades, living on prepared foods. I never got out of my shell and barely talked to anyone in English, all of my friends were Russian speaking. I wasted an opportunity to improve my speaking, although aside from that my English skills satisfy me. By the end of community college, last summer, I was left with B grades that wouldn't let me transfer anywhere decent, and the extreme stress that I put myself through started taking a toll on my mental health. I was planning to take a break and go back to Russia for several months, and transfer back to a US uni this winter. Needless to say, you can't run from yourself. It didn't really become much better after a few months in Russia. I didn't want to study finance anymore, because it was boring and I was exhausted. I still had the video game addiction, still was lazy and gained some more extra pounds of weight. I was not sleeping at all, extremely sleep deprived for months. Because of this and lack of mental stimulation I started to become dumber. And all that was happening where I didn't really have to do anything: not study or work, just sit around the house and do whatever I wanted. Turns out, these conditions didn't help me to get out of the incoming depression. Finally, around November, when I already sent out all of my transfer applications and already got some positive answers from several universities, I knew I didn't have much time left at home, and I had to leave soon. But I really, really didn't want to go back. It was scarier than the first time. I was afraid of new changes, I just wanted for the time to stop and letting me relax, heal... I was having suicidal thoughts and talked about it with my family and my therapist. They were all supportive and helped me as much as they could. But I was the only person who could really help myself. If I wanted to breathe freely, I had to admit defeat and not go back to the US to continue my education. It was extremely hard at first, but then I just let go. I decided to find a temporary job as an English tutor and give myself time to think. Then I remembered that I had a bunch of money in my trading account. I still thought that I was pretty smart, despite failing college, so I figured, why not try move it to Russian brokers who don't have trading restrictions, and do it full time? Which is exactly what I did. And I started to study trading all by myself at a fast pace. I was now trading full time and it was going sideways: +10% in December, -20% in January. Then, something incredible happened. I was already in a shitty place in life, but I still had some hope for my future. Things were about to get much worse. I'm in the late January, and I discovered for myself that the whole financial industry of the world was a fraud. Brief Explanation of My Discoveries. In the image of the financial industry, there are several levels of perceived credibility. In the bottom tier, there is pure gambling. In my country, there were periods when binary options trading and unreliable Forex brokers were popular among common folk, but these were obvious and unsophisticated fraudsters who were one step away from being prosecuted. There are also cryptocurrencies that don't hold any value and are also used only for speculation/redistribution of wealth. There is also a wonderful gambling subreddit wallstreetbets where most users don't even try to hide the fact that what they are doing is pure gambling. I love it. But the thing is, this is trading/investing for the people who have no idea what it is, and most people discredit it as a fraud, which it, indeed, is. These examples are 99% marketing/public image and 1% finance. But these offer x10-1000 returns in the shortest time span. Typical get-rich-quick schemes, but they attract attention. Then, there is trading tier. You can have multiple sub levels here, in the bottom of this tier we would probably have complex technical analysis (indicators) and daily trading/scalping. I was doing this in the DecembeJanuary. At the top would be people who do fundamental analysis (study financial reports) and position trade (monthly time frames). Now, there is constant debate in the trading community whether technical analysis or fundamental analysis is better. I have a solid answer to the question. They work in the same way. Or rather, they don't work at all. You'd ask: "Why you didn't discover this earlier? You were in this financial thing for several years now!" Well, you see, unlike on the previous level, here millions of people say that they actually believe trading works and there is a way to use the available tools to have great returns. Some of these people actually know that trading doesn't work, but they benefit from other traders believing in it, because they can sell them courses or take brokerage fees from them. Still, when there are millions around you telling you that it works, even a non-conformist like me would budge. Not that many people actually participate in the markets, so I thought that by being in this minority made me smart and protected from fraudsters. Lol. All it took for me to discover the truth is to accidentally discover that some technical indicators give random results, do a few google searches, reach some scientific studies which are freely available and prove that technical and fundamental analysis don't work. It was always in front of me, but the fucking trading community plugged my ears and closed my eyes shut so I wasn't able to see it. Trading usually promises 3-15% gain a month. A huge shock, but surely there was still a way for me to work this out? Active investing it is! The next level, active investing, is different from trading. You aim for 15-50% yearly returns, but you don't have to do as much work. You hold on to stocks of your choice for years at a time, once in a while you study the markets, re balance your portfolio, etc. Or you invest your money in a fund, that will select the stocks of their choice and manage their and your portfolio for you. For a small fee of course. All of these actions are aimed at trying to outperform the gain the market made as a whole, and so called index funds, which invest in basically everything and follow the market returns - about 7-10% a year. And if I ever had any doubts in trading, I firmly believed that active investing works since I was a little kid (yes I knew about it back then). And this is where the real fraud comes in. The whole Wall Street and every broker, every stock exchange in the world are a part of a big fraud. Only about 10-20% of professional fund managers outperform the market in any 15 year period. If you take 30 years, this dwindles to almost nothing, which means that no one can predict the markets. These people have no idea what they are doing. Jim Cramer is pure show-business and has no idea what's going on. Warren Buffet gained his fortune with pure luck, and for every Buffet there are some people who made only a million bucks and countless folks who lost everything. Wall Street. They have trillions of dollars and use all that money and power and marketing to convince you that there is a way to predict where the stocks are going without being a legal insider or somehow abusing the law. They will make you think you can somehow learn from them where to invest your money on your own or they will make you believe that you should just give it to them and they will manage it for you, because they know how everything works and they can predict the future using past data. They won't. They don't. They can't. There are studies and statistics to prove it countless times over the span of a 100 years. But they will still charge you exchange fees, brokerage fees and management fees anyway. And they also manipulate certain studies, lobby where and when they need it, and spread misinformation on an unprecedented scale, creating a positive image of themselves. And everyone falls for that. Billions of people around the globe still think it's all legit. Passive index investing is the last level. You just put your money in the market and wait. Markets will go up at a predetermined rate. If there's a crisis, in 10 years no one will even remember. Markets always go up in the end. But passive index investing can only give you only 7% inflation-adjusted returns a year. Not enough to stop working or even retire early, unless you have a high-paying job in a first-world country. I don't. Despite all that, to put it simply, this is the only type of investing that works and doesn't involve any kind of fraud or gambling. It's the type of investing that will give you the most money. If you want to know why it is like that and how to do it, just go to financialindependence. They know this stuff better than any other sub. Better than investing, trading or any other sub where non-passive-index investing is still discussed as viable strategy. Back to me. My whole being was fucked over, my hopes and dreams and understanding of success and how this world works were shattered. I realized, I had no future in financial industry, because only middlemen make money in there, and I quit college needed to get there. Frankly, I wouldn't want to work there even if I had the opportunity. The pay is good, but the job is boring and I wouldn't want to be a part of this giant scheme anyway. But even if I wanted to go back, I also couldn't. Russia is in a worsening crisis and my parents could no longer afford a US university and now with coronavirus it's even worse. Good thing I quit before it all happened. I learned a valuable lesson and didn't lose that much money for it (only about 10% of my savings). God knows where it would lead me if I continued to be delusional. But now that my last temporary plans for the future were scrapped, I had no idea what to do next. The future. With the reality hitting me, I would lie if I say it didn't all come full circle and connect to my past. I realized that I was stupid and not intelligent, because I was living in a made-up world for years now. But even if I were intelligent, pure wit would not give me the success and fortune that I was craving, because trading and active investing were a no-go for me, and business/politics require a very different, extroverted mindset, different education and interest from my own. My only redeeming quality in a hopeless introvert world, my perceived intelligence was taken away from me and rendered useless at the same time. Besides, failing at that one thing made me insecure about everything and now I think of myself as an average individual. So, if 8 out of 10 businesses fail, I shouldn't start one because I will probably fail. And if most politicians don't get anywhere, why should I bother? If average salary in my country is X, I shouldn't hope for more. I stopped believing in my ability to achieve something. First, I failed at education and now I failed... Professionally? I don't know how to describe it, but my life recently was just an emotional roller coaster. I just feel like a very old person and all I want calmness and stability in my life. I was very lazy before just because, but now I feel like I also don't want to do anything because I feel I would just fail. It feels better now I don't have to worry about trading anymore and I got rid of that load... But I am still miserable and perhaps worse than ever, maybe I just don't understand and feel it because I've become slow and numb. The only positive thing that happened to me recently, is that I finally started losing weight and about 1/4 of the way back to my normal weight. As for my future, am looking at several possibilities here. So far the parents are allowing my miserable life to continue and they let me live with them and buy me food. I don't need anything else right now. But it can't go on like this forever. The thought of having a mundane low-paying job in this shithole of a country depresses me. I will probably temporarily do English tutoring if there's demand for such work. My old school friends want me to help them in their business and my dad wants me to help him in his, I and probably should, but I feel useless, pathetic and incapable of doing anything of value. And business just seems boring, difficult and too stressful for me right now. Just not my cup of tea. I am also looking at creative work. I love video games, music, films and other forms of art. I love the games most though, so I am looking into game dev. I don't really like programming, I have learned some during school years, but the pay would probably be higher for a programmer than an creator of any kind of art. However, I think I would enjoy art creation much more, but I don't have any experience in drawing and only some limited experience in music production. And I am not one of these kids who always had a scrapbook with them at school. Having to make another life choice paralyzes me. I am leaning towards art. I don't feel confident in my ability to learn this skill from scratch, but I think it's my best shot at finding a job that would make me happy. So perhaps, when this whole pandemic is over, I'll go to Europe and get my degree, get a job there and stay. American Dream is dead to me, and Europe is cheaper, closer, safe and comfortable. Just the thing for a person who feels like they are thrice their real age. Outro. Thanks for coming to my TED Talk. Special thanks if you read the whole thing, it means a whole lot to me, an internet stranger. But even if no one reads it, feels good to get this off my chest. I actually cried during writing some parts. Holy shit, this might be the longest and smartest looking thing my dumbed down head could manage to generate since college. I hope that you're having a great day. Stay healthy and be careful during this fucking pandemic. All the best.
IQ stock broker is a Forex & bitcoin Company in USA Founded in 2012 by a team of highly motivated professionals who are very passionate about trading on the world’s financial market, and are keen on empowering
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In order to create an account on BitMEX, users first have to register with the website. Registration only requires an email address, the email address must be a genuine address as users will receive an email to confirm registration in order to verify the account. Once users are registered, there are no trading limits. Traders must be at least 18 years of age to sign up. https://preview.redd.it/0v13qoil3cc41.jpg?width=808&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e6134bc089c4e352dce10d754dc84ff11a4c7994 However, it should be noted that BitMEX does not accept any US-based traders and will use IP checks to verify that users are not in the US. While some US users have bypassed this with the use of a VPN, it is not recommended that US individuals sign up to the BitMEX service, especially given the fact that alternative exchanges are available to service US customers that function within the US legal framework. How to Use BitMEX BitMEX allows users to trade cryptocurrencies against a number of fiat currencies, namely the US Dollar, the Japanese Yen and the Chinese Yuan. BitMEX allows users to trade a number of different cryptocurrencies, namely Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Dash, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, Litecoin, Monero, Ripple, Tezos and Zcash. The trading platform on BitMEX is very intuitive and easy to use for those familiar with similar markets. However, it is not for the beginner. The interface does look a little dated when compared to newer exchanges like Binance and Kucoin’s. Once users have signed up to the platform, they should click on Trade, and all the trading instruments will be displayed beneath. Clicking on the particular instrument opens the orderbook, recent trades, and the order slip on the left. The order book shows three columns – the bid value for the underlying asset, the quantity of the order, and the total USD value of all orders, both short and long. The widgets on the trading platform can be changed according to the user’s viewing preferences, allowing users to have full control on what is displayed. It also has a built in feature that provides for TradingView charting. This offers a wide range of charting tool and is considered to be an improvement on many of the offering available from many of its competitors. https://preview.redd.it/fabg1nxo3cc41.jpg?width=808&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6d939889c3eac15ab1e78ec37a8ccd13fc5e0573 Once trades are made, all orders can be easily viewed in the trading platform interface. There are tabs where users can select their Active Orders, see the Stops that are in place, check the Orders Filled (total or partially) and the trade history. On the Active Orders and Stops tabs, traders can cancel any order, by clicking the “Cancel” button. Users also see all currently open positions, with an analysis if it is in the black or red. BitMEX uses a method called auto-deleveraging which BitMEX uses to ensure that liquidated positions are able to be closed even in a volatile market. Auto-deleveraging means that if a position bankrupts without available liquidity, the positive side of the position deleverages, in order of profitability and leverage, the highest leveraged position first in queue. Traders are always shown where they sit in the auto-deleveraging queue, if such is needed. Although the BitMEX platform is optimized for mobile, it only has an Android app (which is not official). There is no iOS app available at present. However, it is recommended that users use it on the desktop if possible. BitMEX offers a variety of order types for users:
Limit Order (the order is fulfilled if the given price is achieved);
Market Order (the order is executed at current market price);
Stop Limit Order (like a stop order, but allows users to set the price of the Order once the Stop Price is triggered);
Stop Market Order (this is a stop order that does not enter the order book, remain unseen until the market reaches the trigger);
Trailing Stop Order (it is similar to a Stop Market order, but here users set a trailing value that is used to place the market order);
Take Profit Limit Order (this can be used, similarly to a Stop Order, to set a target price on a position. In this case, it is in respect of making gains, rather than cutting losses);
Take Profit Market Order (same as the previous type, but in this case, the order triggered will be a market order, and not a limit one)
The exchange offers margin trading in all of the cryptocurrencies displayed on the website. It also offers to trade with futures and derivatives – swaps.
Futures and Swaps
A futures contract is an agreement to buy or sell a given asset in the future at a predetermined price. On BitMEX, users can leverage up to 100x on certain contracts. Perpetual swaps are similar to futures, except that there is no expiry date for them and no settlement. Additionally, they trade close to the underlying reference Index Price, unlike futures, which may diverge substantially from the Index Price. BitMEX also offers Binary series contracts, which are prediction-based contracts which can only settle at either 0 or 100. In essence, the Binary series contracts are a more complicated way of making a bet on a given event. The only Binary series betting instrument currently available is related to the next 1mb block on the Bitcoin blockchain. Binary series contracts are traded with no leverage, a 0% maker fee, a 0.25% taker fee and 0.25% settlement fee.
BitMEX allows its traders to leverage their position on the platform. Leverage is the ability to place orders that are bigger than the users’ existing balance. This could lead to a higher profit in comparison when placing an order with only the wallet balance. Trading in such conditions is called “Margin Trading.” There are two types of Margin Trading: Isolated and Cross-Margin. The former allows the user to select the amount of money in their wallet that should be used to hold their position after an order is placed. However, the latter provides that all of the money in the users’ wallet can be used to hold their position, and therefore should be treated with extreme caution. https://preview.redd.it/eg4qk9qr3cc41.jpg?width=808&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=c3ca8cdf654330ce53e8138d774e72155acf0e7e The BitMEX platform allows users to set their leverage level by using the leverage slider. A maximum leverage of 1:100 is available (on Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash). This is quite a high level of leverage for cryptocurrencies, with the average offered by other exchanges rarely exceeding 1:20.
BitMEX does not charge fees on deposits or withdrawals. However, when withdrawing Bitcoin, the minimum Network fee is based on blockchain load. The only costs therefore are those of the banks or the cryptocurrency networks. As noted previously, BitMEX only accepts deposits in Bitcoin and therefore Bitcoin serves as collateral on trading contracts, regardless of whether or not the trade involves Bitcoin. The minimum deposit is 0.001 BTC. There are no limits on withdrawals, but withdrawals can also be in Bitcoin only. To make a withdrawal, all that users need to do is insert the amount to withdraw and the wallet address to complete the transfer. https://preview.redd.it/xj1kbuew3cc41.jpg?width=808&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=68056f2247001c63e89c880cfbb75b2f3616e8fe Deposits can be made 24/7 but withdrawals are processed by hand at a recurring time once per day. The hand processed withdrawals are intended to increase the security levels of users’ funds by providing extra time (and email notice) to cancel any fraudulent withdrawal requests, as well as bypassing the use of automated systems & hot wallets which may be more prone to compromise.
BitMEX operates as a crypto to crypto exchange and makes use of a Bitcoin-in/Bitcoin-out structure. Therefore, platform users are currently unable to use fiat currencies for any payments or transfers, however, a plus side of this is that there are no limits for trading and the exchange incorporates trading pairs linked to the US Dollar (XBT), Japanese Yen (XBJ), and Chinese Yuan (XBC). BitMEX supports the following cryptocurrencies:
Bitcoin Cash (BCH)
Ethereum Classic (ETC)
Ripple Token (XRP)
EOS Token (EOS)
BitMEX also offers leverage options on the following coins:
5x: Zcash (ZEC)
20x : Ripple (XRP),Bitcoin Cash (BCH), Cardano (ADA), EOS Token (EOS), Tron (TRX)
HDR Global Trading, the company which owns BitMEX, has recently announced a partnership with Trading Technologies International, Inc. (TT), a leading international high-performance trading software provider. The TT platform is designed specifically for professional traders, brokers, and market-access providers, and incorporates a wide variety of trading tools and analytical indicators that allow even the most advanced traders to customize the software to suit their unique trading styles. The TT platform also provides traders with global market access and trade execution through its privately managed infrastructure and the partnership will see BitMEX users gaining access to the trading tools on all BitMEX products, including the popular XBT/USD Perpetual Swap pairing. https://preview.redd.it/qcqunaby3cc41.png?width=672&format=png&auto=webp&s=b77b45ac2b44a9af30a4985e3d9dbafc9bbdb77c
The BitMEX Insurance Fund
The ability to trade on leverage is one of the exchange’s main selling points and offering leverage and providing the opportunity for traders to trade against each other may result in a situation where the winners do not receive all of their expected profits. As a result of the amounts of leverage involved, it’s possible that the losers may not have enough margin in their positions to pay the winners. Traditional exchanges like the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) offset this problem by utilizing multiple layers of protection and cryptocurrency trading platforms offering leverage cannot currently match the levels of protection provided to winning traders. In addition, cryptocurrency exchanges offering leveraged trades propose a capped downside and unlimited upside on a highly volatile asset with the caveat being that on occasion, there may not be enough funds in the system to pay out the winners. To help solve this problem, BitMEX has developed an insurance fund system, and when a trader has an open leveraged position, their position is forcefully closed or liquidated when their maintenance margin is too low. Here, a trader’s profit and loss does not reflect the actual price their position was closed on the market, and with BitMEX when a trader is liquidated, their equity associated with the position drops down to zero. In the following example, the trader has taken a 100x long position. In the event that the mark price of Bitcoin falls to $3,980 (by 0.5%), then the position gets liquidated with the 100 Bitcoin position needing to be sold on the market. This means that it does not matter what price this trade executes at, namely if it’s $3,995 or $3,000, as from the view of the liquidated trader, regardless of the price, they lose all the equity they had in their position, and lose the entire one Bitcoin. https://preview.redd.it/wel3rka04cc41.png?width=669&format=png&auto=webp&s=3f93dac2d3b40aa842d281384113d2e26f25947e Assuming there is a fully liquid market, the bid/ask spread should be tighter than the maintenance margin. Here, liquidations manifest as contributions to the insurance fund (e.g. if the maintenance margin is 50bps, but the market is 1bp wide), and the insurance fund should rise by close to the same amount as the maintenance margin when a position is liquidated. In this scenario, as long as healthy liquid markets persist, the insurance fund should continue its steady growth. The following graphs further illustrate the example, and in the first chart, market conditions are healthy with a narrow bid/ask spread (just $2) at the time of liquidation. Here, the closing trade occurs at a higher price than the bankruptcy price (the price where the margin balance is zero) and the insurance fund benefits. Illustrative example of an insurance contribution – Long 100x with 1 BTC collateral https://preview.redd.it/is89ep924cc41.png?width=699&format=png&auto=webp&s=f0419c68fe88703e594c121b5b742c963c7e2229 (Note: The above illustration is based on opening a 100x long position at $4,000 per BTC and 1 Bitcoin of collateral. The illustration is an oversimplification and ignores factors such as fees and other adjustments. The bid and offer prices represent the state of the order book at the time of liquidation. The closing trade price is $3,978, representing $1 of slippage compared to the $3,979 bid price at the time of liquidation.) The second chart shows a wide bid/ask spread at the time of liquidation, here, the closing trade takes place at a lower price than the bankruptcy price, and the insurance fund is used to make sure that winning traders receive their expected profits. This works to stabilize the potential for returns as there is no guarantee that healthy market conditions can continue, especially during periods of heightened price volatility. During these periods, it’s actually possible that the insurance fund can be used up than it is built up. Illustrative example of an insurance depletion – Long 100x with 1 BTC collateral https://preview.redd.it/vb4mj3n54cc41.png?width=707&format=png&auto=webp&s=0c63b7c99ae1c114d8e3b947fb490e9144dfe61b (Notes: The above illustration is based on opening a 100x long position at $4,000 per BTC and 1 Bitcoin of collateral. The illustration is an oversimplification and ignores factors such as fees and other adjustments. The bid and offer prices represent the state of the order book at the time of liquidation. The closing trade price is $3,800, representing $20 of slippage compared to the $3,820 bid price at the time of liquidation.) The exchange declared in February 2019, that the BitMEX insurance fund retained close to 21,000 Bitcoin (around $70 million based on Bitcoin spot prices at the time). This figure represents just 0.007% of BitMEX’s notional annual trading volume, which has been quoted as being approximately $1 trillion. This is higher than the insurance funds as a proportion of trading volume of the CME, and therefore, winning traders on BitMEX are exposed to much larger risks than CME traders as:
BitMEX does not have clearing members with large balance sheets and traders are directly exposed to each other.
BitMEX does not demand payments from traders with negative account balances.
The underlying instruments on BitMEX are more volatile than the more traditional instruments available on CME.
Therefore, with the insurance fund remaining capitalized, the system effectively with participants who get liquidated paying for liquidations, or a losers pay for losers mechanism. This system may appear controversial as first, though some may argue that there is a degree of uniformity to it. It’s also worth noting that the exchange also makes use of Auto Deleveraging which means that on occasion, leveraged positions in profit can still be reduced during certain time periods if a liquidated order cannot be executed in the market. More adventurous traders should note that while the insurance fund holds 21,000 Bitcoin, worth approximately 0.1% of the total Bitcoin supply, BitMEX still doesn’t offer the same level of guarantees to winning traders that are provided by more traditional leveraged trading platforms. Given the inherent volatility of the cryptocurrency market, there remains some possibility that the fund gets drained down to zero despite its current size. This may result in more successful traders lacking confidence in the platform and choosing to limit their exposure in the event of BitMEX being unable to compensate winning traders.
How suitable is BitMEX for Beginners?
BitMEX generates high Bitcoin trading levels, and also attracts good levels of volume across other crypto-to-crypto transfers. This helps to maintain a buzz around the exchange, and BitMEX also employs relatively low trading fees, and is available round the world (except to US inhabitants). This helps to attract the attention of people new to the process of trading on leverage and when getting started on the platform there are 5 main navigation Tabs to get used to:
**Trade:**The trading dashboard of BitMEX. This tab allows you to select your preferred trading instrument, and choose leverage, as well as place and cancel orders. You can also see your position information and view key information in the contract details.
**Account:**Here, all your account information is displayed including available Bitcoin margin balances, deposits and withdrawals, and trade history.
**Contracts:**This tab covers further instrument information including funding history, contract sizes; leverage offered expiry, underlying reference Price Index data, and other key features.
**References:**This resource centre allows you to learn about futures, perpetual contracts, position marking, and liquidation.
**API:**From here you can set up an API connection with BitMEX, and utilize the REST API and WebSocket API.
BitMEX also employs 24/7 customer support and the team can also be contacted on their Twitter and Reddit accounts. In addition, BitMEX provides a variety of educational resources including an FAQ section, Futures guides, Perpetual Contracts guides, and further resources in the “References” account tab. For users looking for more in depth analysis, the BitMEX blog produces high level descriptions of a number of subjects and has garnered a good reputation among the cryptocurrency community. Most importantly, the exchange also maintains a testnet platform, built on top of testnet Bitcoin, which allows anyone to try out programs and strategies before moving on to the live exchange. This is crucial as despite the wealth of resources available, BitMEX is not really suitable for beginners, and margin trading, futures contracts and swaps are best left to experienced, professional or institutional traders. Margin trading and choosing to engage in leveraged activity are risky processes and even more advanced traders can describe the process as a high risk and high reward “game”. New entrants to the sector should spend a considerable amount of time learning about margin trading and testing out strategies before considering whether to open a live account.
Is BitMEX Safe?
BitMEX is widely considered to have strong levels of security. The platform uses multi-signature deposits and withdrawal schemes which can only be used by BitMEX partners. BitMEX also utilises Amazon Web Services to protect the servers with text messages and two-factor authentication, as well as hardware tokens. BitMEX also has a system for risk checks, which requires that the sum of all account holdings on the website must be zero. If it’s not, all trading is immediately halted. As noted previously, withdrawals are all individually hand-checked by employees, and private keys are never stored in the cloud. Deposit addresses are externally verified to make sure that they contain matching keys. If they do not, there is an immediate system shutdown. https://preview.redd.it/t04qs3484cc41.jpg?width=808&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a3b106cbc9116713dcdd5e908c00b555fd704ee6 In addition, the BitMEX trading platform is written in kdb+, a database and toolset popular amongst major banks in high frequency trading applications. The BitMEX engine appears to be faster and more reliable than some of its competitors, such as Poloniex and Bittrex. They have email notifications, and PGP encryption is used for all communication. The exchange hasn’t been hacked in the past.
How Secure is the platform?
As previously mentioned, BitMEX is considered to be a safe exchange and incorporates a number of security protocols that are becoming standard among the sector’s leading exchanges. In addition to making use of Amazon Web Services’ cloud security, all the exchange’s systems can only be accessed after passing through multiple forms of authentication, and individual systems are only able to communicate with each other across approved and monitored channels. Communication is also further secured as the exchange provides optional PGP encryption for all automated emails, and users can insert their PGP public key into the form inside their accounts. Once set up, BitMEX will encrypt and sign all the automated emails sent by you or to your account by the [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) email address. Users can also initiate secure conversations with the support team by using the email address and public key on the Technical Contact, and the team have made their automated system’s PGP key available for verification in their Security Section. The platform’s trading engine is written in kdb+, a database and toolset used by leading financial institutions in high-frequency trading applications, and the speed and reliability of the engine is also used to perform a full risk check after every order placement, trade, settlement, deposit, and withdrawal. All accounts in the system must consistently sum to zero, and if this does not happen then trading on the platform is immediately halted for all users. With regards to wallet security, BitMEX makes use of a multisignature deposit and withdrawal scheme, and all exchange addresses are multisignature by default with all storage being kept offline. Private keys are not stored on any cloud servers and deep cold storage is used for the majority of funds. Furthermore, all deposit addresses sent by the BitMEX system are verified by an external service that works to ensure that they contain the keys controlled by the founders, and in the event that the public keys differ, the system is immediately shut down and trading halted. The exchange’s security practices also see that every withdrawal is audited by hand by a minimum of two employees before being sent out.
BitMEX Customer Support
The trading platform has a 24/7 support on multiple channels, including email, ticket systems and social media. The typical response time from the customer support team is about one hour, and feedback on the customer support generally suggest that the customer service responses are helpful and are not restricted to automated responses. https://preview.redd.it/8k81zl0a4cc41.jpg?width=808&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e30e5b7ca93d2931f49e2dc84025f2fda386eab1 The BitMEX also offers a knowledge base and FAQs which, although they are not necessarily always helpful, may assist and direct users towards the necessary channels to obtain assistance. BitMEX also offers trading guides which can be accessed here
There would appear to be few complaints online about BitMEX, with most issues relating to technical matters or about the complexities of using the website. Older complaints also appeared to include issues relating to low liquidity, but this no longer appears to be an issue. BitMEX is clearly not a platform that is not intended for the amateur investor. The interface is complex and therefore it can be very difficult for users to get used to the platform and to even navigate the website. However, the platform does provide a wide range of tools and once users have experience of the platform they will appreciate the wide range of information that the platform provides. Visit BitMEX
Trading, psychology, and the benefits of Trading Bots.
https://preview.redd.it/8lhgwekhbmv31.jpg?width=823&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=35c417aa683b9fcdf37a126127c2e60c3ab405c2 Most beginners who open trading accounts on cryptocurrency exchanges and start independent trading, see only one goal — to earn as quickly as possible. This is a big mistake. The fact is that trading on the stock exchange will only become truly profitable when it becomes a priority for the person who came to trading. As a rule, to combine trade with any other occupation and at the same time everywhere to succeed will not work. Trading for a novice trader should be if not the main, then a very important and priority occupation. No need to wait for quick results. Trading on the stock exchange — the same profession as a doctor, Builder or engineer. The only difference is that she can’t go to University. Just as one learns to be a Builder for five years, so it takes years to learn all the wisdom and secrets of the trade. Trading on the stock exchange is not a Stayer distance, it is a marathon. And the winner is the one who will find the courage to reach the end. In addition, trade is very much changing a person, showing his qualities, which in everyday life he does not know. Over time, if a trader really wants to succeed in trading, he must completely rethink his life, change the system of values and look at many things, change himself.
Fear as a Component of Trading
The strongest emotion known to man is, of course, fear. What gives rise to the exchange’s fears? We can not predict the behavior of the market, and therefore fully control their money invested in its instruments. In addition to the unknown, when there is no understanding of how to safely get out of a predicament, we are afraid in advance of what traumatized us earlier. Because fear is so emotional, you need to surround yourself with the right facts to drive it away. We need to know for sure that our trading system should not generate more than three consecutive losing trades. Winners plan what to do if their trades fail. So only a systematic approach will protect us from ourselves. That is why the investment rules written in the trading templates exist not only to communicate the best market opportunities but, more importantly, to protect us from our own internal “demons”.
Emotions in Trading
Seekers of strong emotions, adrenaline forget everything in pursuit of excitement. It follows that a novice investor, overtaken by the “adrenaline curse”, will trade at the slightest opportunity. Yet Dostoevsky, one of the most famous and avid players, said that for him the most acute feeling in life — to win money. The second most acute feeling is to lose them. Paradoxically, few things give more pleasure than getting rid of the pain and torment of being in a losing trade. This creates a mental internal conflict. Awareness of losses brings “excitement” or a sense of exaltation, and our emotionality does not care what we pay for these experiences losses in the brokerage account. “Adrenaline curse” will drive us into the trade for thrills and extract them from there, regardless of the price.
Intuition on the Exchange
The mind of an intuitive investor tries to construct mental constructions of events. I will try to explain what mental construction is by the example of a chess player’s thinking. The grandmaster understands and remembers the position of each figure in terms of its mental constructions and relationships inherent in the arrangement of figures. The random arrangement of the figures does not fit into any of his mental constructs, and he cannot structure what he sees. Market patterns on cryptocurrency charts compared to chess compositions include an excessive element of chaos so that they can be interpreted intuitively. Investors with intuition are able to achieve success with the help of” flair”, but this flair often leaves them. The intellect of the rational trader, on the contrary, is manifested in his ability to logically comprehend what is happening to him and to the reality around him and to make on this basis the simplest and most correct decision. Intuition is the ability of a person to penetrate into the essence of things not by reasoning or logical thinking, but by instantaneous, unconscious insight. This is the ability of a trader to “ see the market not with his mind but with his heart.” But, even with a highly developed intuition, you can not act on the market, using only it.This is the trap of intuitive trading — it is impossible to learn.
Fear of Taking Responsibility
What distinguishes successful traders from losers who lose money? First of all look at life. Most people are very passive. If you ask people if they are happy with their lives, the answer is likely to be negative. On the question of who is to blame, I would say that the fault of the parents who have not given a good education, why now not get a good job; blame the employer who delays wages; blame the dollar, which is rising, then falling; to blame the President and the government who do not pay pensions, etc., In their troubles and problems most of the people blame anyone but themselves. The same thing happens in the market because the exchange is a mirror of our life. Talk to the trader losing money, ask why he can’t make money in the market. He replied that the fault of the insiders, manipulators, blame the binary options broker too much Commission, to blame the neighbor who suggested the deal, which turned into a heavy loss. In other words, he himself would have been a millionaire long ago, but for a number of reasons, certainly beyond his control, until that happened. If a person wants to achieve something-not just to lead a life, which are millions of ordinary people (every day to go to work, save five years for a car, twenty years for an apartment, etc.), and to live a full life, so that the financial issue went into the background, to work for fun, not for money, he needs to take responsibility for everything that happens in his life. A person needs to realize that the cause of everything that happens to him is himself.It is this view that allows you to succeed in life and in any business. And trade is no exception. This is the way successful traders look at life. Once you realize that the cause of all your losses is yourself, and not some mythical manipulators, then the case will move forward. ******************************************************************************************************* In the age of digital technologies, when artificial intelligence develops, computer technologies improve, mankind creates various tools to facilitate their own life and everyday life. If we pay attention to trading, then this direction is actively developing, getting new and unique tools. Since any trader (beginner or experienced specialist) is subject to emotions and various psychological factors, there are tools such as trading bots.
A trading robot (bot) is a program that has a certain algorithm. It buys or sells cryptocurrency assets, focusing on the situation in the market. The first trading robots appeared in 2012, and since then they have become more and more perfect. Currently, according to some estimates, 90% of short-term transactions are made either by bots or with their participation. Bots are usually developed for specific trading platforms. Most cryptocurrency exchanges have an API, and they are generally positive about free auto trading within their platform. In contrast to the positive attitude to exchange robots, exchanges often have a negative attitude to arbitration robots. On the rules of trade can be found in the official documentation of the exchange, and if there is no such information, the question can be asked directly to technical support.Some people wonder: is it possible to write your bot trader? This is not an easy option, which is suitable only for experienced programmers. After writing, bots are tested for a long time in the market, corrected numerous errors, corrected strategy. A programmer can also write a bot based on someone else’s code. Some bots are open source, and anyone can find it on GitHub and modify it to fit their needs. Buy a bot for trading cryptocurrency: there are inexpensive programs for trading (about $ 10), and the cost of more high-quality and complex exceeds more than $ 200 and even $ 1000. There is no maximum price limit for bots, top bots are written to order $ 1500 and more. Users are usually offered a choice of several tariff plans for crypto bots, from economy to luxury. The inexpensive option includes the most basic trading algorithms, and the expensive one brings maximum profit and works on more complex algorithms. Arbitration bots are a more expensive exchange. Known cases when downloading the bot, people got on your computer virus-miner or virus-cipher, which encrypt all your personal files and demanded a ransom in bitcoin, usually in bitcoin. Naturally, after transferring the ransom to the specified wallet, no decryption of the files occurred. Trading strategy of stock and arbitrage bots can be very simple, for example:- When the price of cryptocurrency decreases, you need to buy it.- If the price rises, it should be sold.- Or much more complicated. The algorithm can take into account historical data for the last time, indicators, navigate by signals. Quality bots analyze more than a hundred parameters when placing orders. Some programs do not change the algorithm, and there are bots that can connect or configure additional parameters. This option is well suited for experienced traders who have their own preferences in the style of trading. A standard bot can perform such actions:- To assess the market situation, to monitor the rate at a given period of time, to make a forecast. In manual trading, it can show signals to the trader.- Create buy or sell orders.- To report on the profit or loss received. On the example of our IMBA-Exchange, we came to the conclusion that we also need to provide an opportunity for each trader to use bots so that they can be in a comfortable trading environment. Our exchange specialists are developing their own bot for cryptocurrency trading, which will be an excellent and convenient addition to every trader who wants to eliminate the psychological factor and seeks to get stable earnings without losing personal time. ******************************************************************************************************* IMBA-ExchangeMetronix botmakes life easier for every investor. For example, Ing. Michael Eder the CEO of IMBA-Exchange, who has 10 years of experience in trading and the last 3 years in cryptocurrency trading, has firmly decided for himself that in the current realities trading on the exchange simply needs bots:
Throughout the time that I have been trading, I can confidently say that today trading bots are necessary for all traders as the main tool. No matter how long you are in exchange trading, but the nature of the person is designed so that under the influence of psychological factors, market conditions, etc. You still make mistakes and, as a result, this leads to financial losses.OurMetronix Trading Botwill help to solve these problems and eliminate negative consequences. A bot is a tool; it has no feelings. He performs a specific task for a given program and performs it almost unmistakably. The task of the trader is to monitor the situation on the market and correctly, as well as at the right time to configure your bot.
Hello traders, Me, Claudiu Pana, and my team have been working on a project that hopes to bring together the emerging space of cryptocurrencies with the well-known binary trading system, in a new innovative manner that empowers the players. Integrating the most important benefit of what crypto space offers, the peer-to-peer feature, with the binary trading system, users can now trade between themselves without concerns, such as dynamic profits, predatory fees and market manipulation. The idea of creating this platform appeared because classic binary options platforms, where traders bet against the broker, are prone to fraud and hence banned by regulators in many jurisdictions. Many binary option outlets have been exposed as fraudulent, and here is where we totally differentiate from the troubled classic binary trading systems. TRIBTC`s innovative approach allows users to trade against each other or join trades other users place. This approach brings together, for the first time, the peer-to-peer concept with binary options trading for cryptocurrency pairs, thus eliminating the possibility of foul play that happens on traditional binary options sites where trading is done against the broker. TRIBTC`s platform and trading engine are built by industry veterans from the crypto and finance industries. We have been building out our platform throughout 2019 and we are proud to finally **release the beta version to the public.**We aim to give market participants worldwide access to safer and reliable binary options trading through peer-to-peer matching, cutting-edge features, and the power of Bitcoin. We will not rest until the market can fully realize this new paradigm. Once officially launched, the platform will feature a referral program, where 2,5 percent from all trades a referred user makes will go to their referral, paid in BTC automatically. TRIBTC supports multiple order types and execution options to facilitate any trading strategy, and a simple and intuitive interface for a professional trading experience, all within a high-grade matching engine.After our beta is complete, new features will be added, including new order types and the Touch/No Touch trading method.Our platform supports BTC only for deposits and withdrawals. TRIBTC`s simple and intuitive interface offers multiple types of trading and transaction execution options to facilitate any trading strategy.The platform provides the following trading pairs: BTC/USD, ETH/USD, LTC/USD, EOS/USD, BNB/USDT, XMUSD, ZEC/USD, ETH/BTC, LTC/BTC, XRP/BTC, BNB/BTC, XMBTC, ZEC/BTC, and EOS/BTC. Trading can be executed on timeframes of 1, 5, 15, 30 minutes, 1 or 4 hours, 1, 2, 7 or 15 days, a month or in custom intervals, with the possibility of earning 90% of the traded amount in the case of winning trades.Price indexes are sourced and averaged from the Bitfinex and Binance exchanges. The funds are stored in a multi-sig cold wallet, while the withdrawals are manually checked and processed every 24 hours. User accounts are protected with a 2FA feature, as well as other security features designed to provide a more secure trading environment.The project is entirely funded by the team, while no ICO and no fundraising were hosted, we`re not trying to make false promises. We`re just a team who are trying to prove a point - we can reignite the spark of those who traded binary options in the past and got burned by their brokers.Our platform doesn`t bet against you, it lets you invite of all your friends to join your trade. Our plan is to invest our 5% profit made (as 2,5% goes for the referral brought by the winner, and other 2,5% for the referral brought by the loser) in advertising as much as it takes to get up there.In the idea of creating a more secure trading environment, currently we`re running a beta phase, from which users can benefit by joining and register on our platform and get used to the platform by placing or joining other users` trades. The public testnet is now live and the platform can be tested by anyone, 1 testnet BTC is automatically credited to all new accounts registered, while the minimum bet is 0.0005 BTC - so plenty of trades can be executed. We thank you for reading our description about our project, and hopefully we got you at least curios to check it out, and maybe offer us some feedback! Claudiu Pana, CEO of TRIBTC.
Redis, short for Remote Dictionary Server, is a BSD-licensed, open-source in-memory key-value data structure store written in C language by Salvatore Sanfillipo and was first released on May 10, 2009. Depending on how it is configured, Redis can act like a database, a cache or a message broker. It’s important to note that Redis is a NoSQL database system. This implies that unlike SQL (Structured Query Language) driven database systems like MySQL, PostgreSQL, and Oracle, Redis does not store data in well-defined database schemas which constitute tables, rows, and columns. Instead, Redis stores data in data structures which makes it very flexible to use. In this blog, we outline the top Redis use cases by the different core data structure types.
Data Structures in Redis
Let’s have a look at some of the data types that Redis supports. In Redis, we have strings, lists, sets, sorted sets, and hashes, which we are going to cover in this article. Additionally, we have other data types such as bitmaps, hyperloglogs and geospatial indexes with radius queries and streams. While there are some Redis GUI tools written by the Redis community, the command line is by far the most important client, unlike popular SQL databases users which often prefer GUI management systems, for instance, phpMyAdmin for MySQL and PgAdmin for PostgreSQL. Let us take a closer look at the data types that exist in Redis.
Redis Strings are the most basic type of Redis value leveraged by all other data structure types, and are quite similar to strings in other programming languages such as Java or Python. Strings, which can contain any data type, are considered binary safe and have a maximum length of 512MB. Here are a couple useful commands for Redis strings: To store a string ‘john’ under a key such as ‘student’ in Redis, run the command: SET “student” “john” To retrieve the string, use the GET command as shown: GET “student” To delete the string contained in the key use the DEL command: DEL “student”
Redis Strings Use Cases
Session Cache: Many websites leverage Redis Strings to create a session cache to speed up their website experience by caching HTML fragments or pages. Since data is stored temporarily in the RAM, this attribute makes Redis a perfect choice as a session cache. It is able to temporarily store user-specific data, for instance, items stored in a shopping cart in an online store, which is crucial in that your users do not lose their data in the event they log out or lose connection.
Queues: Any application that deals with traffic congestion, messaging, data gathering, job management, or packer routing should consider a Redis Queue, as this can help you manage your queue size by rate of arrival and departure for resource distribution.
Usage & Metered Billing: A lesser known use case for Redis Strings is the real-time metering for consumption-based pricing models. This allows SaaS platforms that bill based on actual usage to meter their customers activity, such as in the telecommunications industry where they may charge for text messages or minutes.
Lists contain strings that are sorted by their insertion order. With Redis Lists, you can add items to the head or tail of the lists, which is very useful for queueing jobs. If there are more urgent jobs you require to be executed, these can be pushed in front of other lower priority jobs in the queue. We would use the LPUSH command to insert an element at the head, or left of the string, and the RPUSH command to insert at the tail, or right of our string. Let’s look at an example: LPUSH list x # now the list is "x" LPUSH list y # now the list is "y","x" RPUSH list z # now the list is "y","x","z" (notice how the ‘z’ element was added to the end of the list by RPUSH command)
Redis List Use Cases
Social Networking Sites: Social platforms like Twitter use Redis Lists to populate their timelines or homepage feeds, and can customize the top of their feeds with trending tweets or stories.
RSS Feeds: Create news feeds from custom sources where you can pull the latest updates and allow interested followers to subscribe to your RSS feed.
Leaderboards: Forums like Reddit and other voting platforms leverage Redis Lists to add articles to the leaderboard and sort by most voted entries.
Redis Sets are powerful data types that support powerful operations like intersections and unions. They are not in any order and are usually used when you want to perform an audit and see relationships between various variables. Sets are reasonably fast, and regardless of the number of elements you have stored, it will take the same time to add or remove items in a set. Furthermore, sets do not allow duplicate keys or duplicate members, so a key added multiple times in a set will simply be ignored. This is driven by a function called SADD which avoids duplication of multiple similar entries. The SADD attribute can be employed when checking unique values, and can also for scheduling jobs running in the background, including cron jobs which are automated scripts. These are particularly helpful for analyzing real-time customer behavior for your online shopping site. For instance, if you’re running an online clothing store, Redis Sorted Sets employ relationship matching technique such as unions, intersections, and subtractions (commonly applied in Venn diagrams) to give an accurate picture of customer behavior. You can retrieve data on shopping patterns between genders, which clothes products sell more the most, and which hours record the highest sales.
Redis Sets Use Cases
Analyzing Ecommerce Sales: Many online stores use Redis Sets to analyze customer behavior, such as searches or purchases for a specific product category or subcategory. For example, an online bookstore owner can find out how many customers purchased medical books in Psychology.
IP Address Tracking: Redis Sets are a great tool for developers who want to analyze all of the IP addresses that visited a specific website page or blog post, and to be able to ignore all of the duplicates for unique visitors with their SADD function.
Inappropriate Content Filtering: For any app that collects user input, it’s a good idea to implement content filtering for inappropriate words, and you can do this with Redis Sets by adding words you’d like to filter to a SET key and the SADD command.
As the name suggests, Redis Sorted Sets are a collection of strings that assign an order to your elements, and are one of the most advanced data structures in Redis. These are similar to Redis Sets, only that Sets have no order while Sorted Sets associate every member with a score. Sorted Sets are known for being very fast, as you can return ordered lists and access elements in the shortest time possible.
Redis Sorted Sets Use Cases
Q&A Platforms: Many Q&A platforms like Stack Overflow and Quora use Redis Sorted Sets to rank the highest voted answers for each proposed question to ensure the best quality content is listed at the top of the page.
Gaming App Scoreboards:Online gaming apps leverage Redis Sorted Sets to maintain their high score lists, as scores can be repeated, but the strings which contain the unique user details cannot.
Task Scheduling Service: Redis Sorted Sets are a great tool for a task scheduling service, as you can associate a score to rank the priority of a task in your queue. For any task that does not have a score noted, you can use the WEIGHTS option to a default of 1.
Geo Hashing: The Redis geo indexing API uses a Sorted Set for the Geo Hash technique which allows you to index locations based on latitude and longitude, turning multi dimensional data into linear data.
Redis Hashes are maps between string fields and string values. This is the go-to data type if you need to essentially create a container of unique fields and their values to represent objects. Hashes allow you to store a decent amount of fields, up to 232 – 1 field-value pairs (more than 4 billion), while taking up very little space. You should use Redis Hashes whenever possible, as you can use a small Redis instance to store millions of objects. You can use basic hash command operations, such as get, set, exists, in addition to many advanced operations.
Redis Hashes Use Cases
User Profiles: Many web applications use Redis Hashes for their user profiles, as they can use a single hash for all the user fields, such as name, surname, email, password, etc.
User Posts: Social platforms like Instagram leverage Redis Hashes to map all the archived user photos or posts back to a single user. The hashing mechanism allows them to look up and return values very quickly, fit the data in memory, and leverage data persistence in the event one of their servers dies.
Storing Multi-Tenant Metrics:Multi-tenant applications can leverage Redis hashes to record and store their product and sales metrics in a way that guarantees solid separation between each tenant, as hashes can be encoded efficiently in a very small memory space.
Who uses Redis?
Redis has found a huge market share across the travel and hospitality, community forums, social media, SaaS, and ecommerce industries to name just a few. Some of the leading companies who use Redis include Pinterest, Uber, Slack, Airbnb, Twitter, and Stack Overflow. Here are some stats on Redis popularity today:
4,107 companies reported using Redis on StackShare
Crafting Upgrades - We removed any potential for the crafting process to result in an upgrade that is worse than what is currently fitted. All penalties in blueprints are fixed and only applied once per rank. You need to maximize benefits from an upgrade before we can start applying higher rank versions to a module.
If you have a higher reputation with an Engineer, the number of rolls you need to progress through lower grades will be lower. This means you will be able to roll the highest grade much more quickly if you have a higher reputation with an Engineer. (Beta 2)
Secondary Effects - Secondary hidden statistical variables have been removed. We'll try to ensure that each module has a set of experimental effects that allow you to tweak your module in a variety of ways.
Pinned Blueprints - You are now able to craft pinned blueprints at any starport that has outfitting. You can pin a blueprint per engineer.
When pinning a blueprint, it will now pin all grades rather than just one. (Beta 2)
Experimental Effects - These will no longer have a chance to occur during the upgrade process. Instead, each experimental effect will simply have a materials cost that you can pay to have it fitted to an appropriate module. This means that there is no way you can lose reputation ranks with an Engineer.
Material & Data Storage - There's a per material/data storage cap, with different caps for different tiers: Tier 1 - 300, Tier 2 - 250, Tier 3 - 200, Tier 4 - 150, Tier 5 - 100.
UI Improvement - There have been added quality and quantity indicators for materials in the game world, so you’ll be able to see at a glance how much you have of a material without having to check your inventory.
Collecting Materials - We've added an ignore function for materials (and commodities, incidentally), allowing you to mine and collect more efficiently by preventing collector limpets from picking up ignored items and auto-venting refineries.
Grandfathering - Existing engineered modules have been grandfathered. This means you can still use them, their statistics and effects won’t be changed. However, if you want to apply further upgrades to them, they will have to be converted. Conversion will place them at the top of the previous rank (so a rank 4 upgrade would become maxed rank 3 upgrade) and would change all statistics and effects to represent the new blueprint.
We will try to make sure that the new blueprints can max out slightly better than the old system (we want to encourage conversion).
Added a new contact called a Materials Trader to give players the ability to hand in materials in exchange for others at set exchange rates based on grade and material type.
This will allow players to trade for rarer items or items obtained by gameplay they do not want to take part in (E.G. killing trade ships) as well as converting stockpiles of unwanted materials to ones that the player needs.
This is not intended to replace material gathering completely, but be a useful tool to help shorten the gameplay loops around gathering materials, making engineering and unlocking items at the tech broker more accessible.
Allow players to trade one material of another in a single trade.
Only one trade at a time can be completed.
Material traders operate on a true barter system. There are no credits involved.
Traders are split into types – Raw, Manufactured and Encoded.
Each trader type only trades in their type of materials and can be found in different economy types. Locations material traders can be found are:
Raw Materials Trader - Found at extraction and refinery economies, only trades in raw material found on planet surfaces and planetary rings.
Manufactured Materials Trader - Found at industrial economies, only trades in manufactured materials.
Encoded Materials Trader - Found at High Tech and Military economies, only trades in encoded materials.
Systems also need to be mid to high security systems and have populations between 1,000,000 and 22,000,000.
Materials Traders will not show up in lawless and anarchy systems.
Materials Traders will not show up at stations that are currently controlled by a criminal faction.
Materials Traders will be unavailable when a station is damaged, under repair or put on lockdown.
Horizons is required to use Material traders.
Material traders can be found using the new By Service map view (Image) configuration option. This has a 40ly range and only shows traders that you have discovered.
Material traders will also be shown on the system map in the station services list.
Material traders will appear in the Human Bubble, Colonia and Pleiades regions at economies types listed above.
Bounties and fine are applied to the ship you're in.
Fines never mature into bounties.
Bounties never become dormant.
Bounties never expire.
Fines can be paid off at security contacts
Bounties can be cleared by Interstellar Factors when your Notoriety is 0
Claimed bounties for the jurisdiction you died in must be paid when you re-spawn at detention centres. (!)These changes aim to simplify crimes. You will now have more control over your criminal status risk and reward. You can store a ship with bounties on (a hot ship), hiding your criminality, but at the cost of not using the ship. Bounties are now more significant as you must use Interstellar Factors to clear them, which can be expensive.
Notoriety and Murder
Commanders gain a Notoriety rating, a value between zero and ten.
Notoriety increases by one whenever a Commander commits a murder crime.
Notoriety decays one unit every 2 hours of time when you’re logged in the game back down to zero.
For each level of notoriety, murder bounty values are increased by a fraction of the perpetrator's rebuy cost - the higher the notoriety, the bigger the fraction.
If the victim is a Commander (a player rather than an NPC) then you pay 10% percent per point of notoriety of the difference between your base rebuy cost, factoring in engineering, and the victim’s rebuy cost. If your cost is less than your victim’s, this will be zero. This is to de-incentivise destroying smaller ships than your own. This number, as well as others in the Beyond update, will be revisited and tweaked after launch to make sure the game is as balanced and enjoyable as possible.
In addition, Commanders that are destroyed have their rebuy cost reduced based on the notoriety level of their murderer - the more notorious the assassin, the bigger the discount on rebuy cost for the victim.
Notoriety is linked directly to the Commander, regardless of which ship they fly in.
Any Notoriety means the interstellar factors cannot clear your fines or bounties.
Around starports, any death that results from collisions will not apply to the notoriety penalties nor will it increase Notoriety. This is to prevent small ships being destroyed by excessive ramming. Ramming and combat logging are two examples of other things that we’re giving specific care and attention to – keep an eye on the forums and on social media for any news relating to these topics.
Notoriety exemption for murder by ramming now applies everywhere, not just near stations. (Update 3.0.2)
(!)These changes ensure that Commanders can't completely shed their criminal status by swapping to clean ships. It also addresses the seriousness of the murder crime, especially against other Commanders, as well stopping people from attacking smaller ships unnecessarily.
Hot Ships and Modules
A ship with bounties on it is hot.
A hot ship cannot be transferred to a port in a jurisdiction where the hot ship is wanted.
Elsewhere - ship transfer costs are increased for the hot ship.
Modules taken from a hot ship are hot modules.
Hot ships can be cleaned using Interstellar Factors, at a cost.
Hot modules can be cleaned in storage for a price based on the module's value.
Hot modules cannot be placed in a clean ship.
Hot ships and modules can be sold at a mark down. (!)These changes mean there are more consequences for criminals, to close off potential "laundering" exploits.
Friendly Fire and Reckless Weapons Discharge
The tolerance for friendly fire has been increased - you can deal more damage before you gain the assault crime.
A new crime has been added "Reckless weapons discharge", which triggers at the old friendly fire threshold, and is only a fine. (!)These changes reflect the potential increased consequence for a bounty, allowing more leeway before one is issued.
Anonymous Access Protocols
When in a hot ship, port services are restricted in jurisdictions where the ship is wanted - your ship logs in anonymously.
Fines prevent access to all services except missions in progress, security contact, Interstellar Factors and black markets
Bounties prevent access to all services except missions in progress, Interstellar Factors and black markets. (!)This helps to make sure there are consequences for your crimes.
Crimes committed between Powerplay pledged Commanders generate power bounties instead of normal bounties.
Power bounties can only be detected and claimed by Commanders pledged to the power that issued them.
Commanders destroyed for their Power bounty are not processed as criminals and do not pay any additional costs during respawning. (!)Authority ships will no longer get involved with Powerplay. For example, A Hudson Commander can still attack a Patreus Commander with impunity in a system controlled or exploited by Hudson. However when the Patreus player fights back they will get a Power bounty and no authority ships will be summoned.
Authorities now have access to new security vessels: ATR (Advanced Tactical Responders)
ATR ships are kitted out with top tier hardware, in exclusive, customised configurations. They are extremely competent pilots.
ATR ships can be summoned once a Commander has committed enough crimes in a jurisdiction.
The security of the system determines the level of crime before they are summoned
ATR ships arrive with full knowledge of their target and are pre cleared to arrive "weapons hot".
Once ATR ships respond to crimes, they will continue to respond until the Commander leaves the system. (!)Another piece of the crime consequences puzzle, ATR should also help mitigate Commanders attempting to exert excessive influence in the background simulation.
Crime and Ship Destruction
Attacking Wanted ships (player or NPC) is now legal even if the player does not know they are Wanted.
When a hot ship is destroyed where it is wanted the Commander will respawn at the nearest Detention Centre.
There are lots of Detention Centres in human space.
When respawning at a Detention Centre, a Commander must pay off their bounty or fine for the jurisdiction where they were destroyed and any bounties detected by a Kill Warrant scan, in addition to their rebuy cost - all other bounties and fines remain attached to the ship.
When a ship is destroyed where it is not wanted it will respawn at a starport owned by the jurisdiction’s controlling faction.
If there are no appropriate starports, it will respawn at the last port it was last docked at.
When a ship is destroyed where it is not wanted but hostile to the jurisdiction’s controlling faction, it will be deported and respawn at the nearest Detention Centre. (!)This change makes the crime flow more consistent and plausible and ensure you will not be trapped by re-spawning in a station you are hostile.
Kill Warrant Scanner
The Kill Warrant Scanner detects all bounties issued by system factions in every system. The Kill Warrant Scanner grants a license to kill if at least one detected bounty is issued by a faction that is aligned to the same superpower as the current jurisdiction.
When used, the Kill Warrant Scanner prevents reputation loss for destroying ships, except criminally aligned vessels. (Coming Soon: Source)
NPC ships can have bounties for factions not present in the current system, favouring nearby systems where possible.
(!)Making this change involves a significant amount of under the hood changes to the way bounties are generated, which increases the robustness of the whole bounty system. This has meant that this Kill Warrant Scanner update will deploy a little after Chapter One’s launch.
When you gain five or more bounties for factions aligned to the same superpower, a superpower bounty is issued against you.
Superpower bounties are valid for every jurisdiction aligned to the superpower.
Superpower bounties are detected by a basic scan.
When a superpower bounty is detected, all bounties issued by factions aligned with the superpower are also detected.
Superpower bounties grant credit rewards and reputation for the superpower.
We’ve looked at all of the feedback concerning bounties, background simulation and the Kill Warrant Scanner, and these rules are the result. Because they are changing from our original interpretation, they will be deployed along with the update to the Kill Warrant Scanner and ship destruction rules tweaks.
(!)Superpower bounties add consequence to those who commit crime sprees across multiple systems. They also help define clear boundaries between Empire, Federation and Allied space.
Commanders will be able to select the trade data column header to enter the trade data overlay. From there, you can select specific markets by typing in the system name or finding the system using the galaxy map.
Important note: only systems you have docked in or scanned the 'Nav Beacon' at will display a result when entered, so the more systems you visit in the greater the amount of trade data you will have to use when looking for a potential profit.
Once a system is selected, as long as you have the trade data, a tab will appear.
Using this you can select which market in the system you want to display the trade data for.
You can now select whether you want to show export profits (the money you would make when exporting to the system) or input profits (the money you would make from importing goods from the system to your current market).
Once the parameters have been chosen, you can hit the OK button to display the data for the selected market on the commodity market screen allowing you to see what profits you could make on any commodities.
Important note: profit given is accurate at the time of being displayed and can fluctuate when travelling to the chosen market.
The commodities market interface has also had a makeover with more information about potential markets displayed in the right hand panel. Supply and demand is now shown as pips instead of high (now 3 pips), medium (now 2 pips) and low (now 1 pip).
When you select a commodity, a confirmation overlay will open, allowing you to select how many of the item you want to buy or sell and then you'll be able to confirm the trade
Using the galaxy map for trade data:
You can use the same interface to access and use the galaxy map to select a target market. This is also available straight from the galaxy map tab in the left cockpit panel.
With the galaxy map open you can use some new configuration options to display trade data, find trades and select a market to compare with your current location.
New options are stored in the Map option under 'Map View Configuration.'
There is a new entry in this drop down called 'By Commodity'.
This will open up the new commodity search options
You will be able to select the commodity type and commodity that you are interested in.
If you already have a commodity in your ships inventory it will be highlighted with an icon, allowing you to see at a glance what you have onboard.
With a commodity chosen the galaxy map will display trade heat map icons within a 40 light year radius of your current position to indicate star systems that import or export that commodity.
Important note: you can search for and look at trade data for systems further than 40ly, it’s just that the heat map has a set range so the icons will only show up within that range of your current location.
A Blue Diamond is a system that imports the item and Green Triangle is a system that exports the item.
Under the commodity selection on the left hand panel are also three new filters allowing you to set the icons to show:
Best import and export prices
Import prices only
Export prices only
With the By Commodity map mode selected, you can move your cursor over a system and select it.
As mentioned before, if you have previously docked in the system or scanned the 'Nav Beacon' there then an expanded overlay will display trade data. But for systems that you have not visited, a message will be displayed telling you that the system's data is unavailable and how you can unlock it.
When you select a system, you will be able to scroll through each market in the system and see the per unit price of your chosen commodity on the system selection overlay. This will allow you to quickly work out the best locations to trade at (based on price).
Below 'import/export price' there is a new selection of filters. Using these filters you can find the best location with the best price to suit your ship and cargo. These filters are as are:
Landing pad size – This allows you to see what landing pad sizes are available at the Starport.
Planetary Market - This allows you to show or hide markets that are on a planets
Distance from star – This allows you to filter between market a short, medium or long range from the main system star.
We have also added another new button on the system selection overlay: mark market for comparison. This allows you to show the trade data from your selected commodity market to the commodity market at your current location (instead of displaying the galactic average.)
Trending trade route data
We have also updated the trade data routes in the galaxy map to now show trending trade routes used by commanders and commercial pilots. Using these filters can, alongside the various commodity filters, help commanders get a clear view of who is trading what and where in the systems near to you.
These are missions designed to be shared by up to four players.
In order to accept the mission, one member of the wing needs to access the mission board and select a wing mission, which are denoted by a special icon.
Once accepted, the player who took the mission can share it by clicking the share button on the mission’s entry, located in the 'Transactions' panel. Doing so sends the player's wingmates an inbox message and adds the mission to their own Transactions panel.
The wingmates can choose to then either accept or decline the mission invite in the Transactions panel.
Important to note: each player can only share one mission at a time, this means that with a maximum of four players in a wing, players can be part of up to a maximum of four active wing missions at any given time.
In the case of a wing delivery mission, players will be charged with transporting large quantities of goods from point A to point B. previously, when taking a delivery mission, all the cargo would be placed into the player’s hold for them to deliver. However, as we are now dealing with larger quantities and missions involving multiple players, this added a new development challenge; we needed to add a way for players to collect and deliver part of the mission’s total required cargo. In order to facilitate this, we introduced the 'mission depot,' which allows members of a wing to collect and deliver any amount of cargo that they require for the mission.
The mission is completed when all the cargo has been delivered and each member of the wing is then able to collect their rewards.
All players who are members of the wing at the point that the mission is completed are eligible for the mission rewards.
Once all cargo has been collect and a set amount of cargo has been delivered to a mission depot the owner of the mission has the option to partially complete it. In this instance all wing members will receive a credit only reward proportional to the amount of cargo delivered. For example if 75% of the cargo is delivered all wing members will receive a credit reward equal to 75% of the mission’s promised reward.
If a player has collected cargo, which has not been delivered when a mission is completed, they will receive a fine based on the cargo’s value.
The new mission reward system, which provides players with three different, and roughly equivalent, reward packages allowing each player to choose which set of rewards they wish to claim. One of these reward packages will always be a credit based reward package.
Another change coming to this chapter of Beyond is the additional gameplay interactions that will be available at the various megaships found across the galaxy. As well as the simple data links and NPC ship scenarios we have added a new flow for scanning these and (in later Beyond updates) other large space objects.
Megaships will now need to be scanned with the data scanner before any of the interaction objects become interactive. - Video
Doing so will release a scan pulse which highlights all interaction objects attached to the ship.
Interaction objects are added to the ships contacts panel and can now be targeted and interrogated to discover how to interact with them.
Some of interactions will utilise limpets of various types to allow you to activate, deactivate, damage, hack or simply operate an item. While others can be shot or scanned to interact.
One thing to note is that all current interactions are considered illegal, tying in with the changes to Crime and Punishment. These interactions provide criminal pilots new gameplay options as well as giving lawful players new locations to find wanted pilots.
In addition to the aforementioned interactions, we have tweaked the scenarios around the megaships to include a greater variety of criminal and lawful pilots, as well as crime responders such as police ships which we feel will add a bit more spice to these locations.
We have plans to add other interaction types and locations in later updates, so there will be more to come in this area.
Technology Brokers are dealers in new and rare technologies and items. These contacts appear in various stations across known human space and can generally be found in highly populated systems with a high security level. Visit tech brokers to see what items they currently have available and complete set requests to unlock these items by handing in the required commodities and materials. The addition of Technology Brokers allows pilots to acquire new items based on their personal narrative giving even more ways to play elite your way.
We have overhauled the surface material system for the rocky, high metal content and metal rich planets. We have pushed the system to get a lot more out of it, but this is just the first step towards further major planetary system improvements. The contrast and variation across and between bodies is much improved. We also hope that these planetary visual improvements (with more surface level improvements coming later in the year) will also bring a new vibrancy to the Elite Dangerous galaxy, encouraging wanderlust explorers to discover far systems and planets. The colouration of the surfaces now more clearly telegraphs the chemical makeup and volcanic activity of the worlds. In addition, binary rocky/metallic planets more accurately simulate having similar colourations from shared formation materials where appropriate.
At the simple click of a button, you’ll now be able to listen to GalNet audio whilst flying your ship.
All you have to do is select the play button at the bottom of the right-hand system panel in your cockpit to play through the headline news stories.
If you’re looking for a specific story, or you want to curate your own playlist of handpicked news, you can do so by opening up GalNet news from the same panel and select the stories individually.
GalNet news will fade in and out depending on the situation, and stop altogether in some key situations. In some cases, such as counting down to hyperspace jumps, the news will pause and then resume once the countdown is complete. The story, or playlist, will continue from where you left off. - YouTube
Changing your COVAS (Cockpit Voice Assistant) is a new addition to Elite Dangerous and the first of these will be Victor, ready at the launch of Chapter One of Beyond. Commanders will be able to change their COVAS at the Starport Services livery customisation section.
It'll be possible to also change the COVAS for your SRV too, you'll need to head over to the SRV customisation bay to change your preference.
And... if you miss Verity, you'll be able to change the COVAS back.
Frontier is working in partnership with HCS to bring you new COVAS packs in the future.
These voices are intended to bring a new flavour to commanders out in the black, however, it's important to note at the current time we do not intend to introduce celebrity voice packs.
The Alliance Chieftain is a medium-sized ship that has been designed not only to dish out punishment, but to avoid it. Manufactured by Lakon Spaceways, the Chieftain is more manoeuvrable than ships of similar size and weight, and its combat profile means it can more than hold its own in a fight. The ship also boasts three internal military compartments, allowing the pilot to equip a shield cell bank, hull reinforcements and module reinforcements.
Specifications: Medium pad. Hardpoints: 2 Large - 1 Medium - 3 Small. Not locked behind a rank requirement.
Squadrons - New organizational structure for player groups. We'll be able to create our own squadrons. We'll have tools to manage the membership and hierarchy in them. Squadrons will feature enhanced communication options. - Image
Fleet Carriers - Squadrons will be able to purchase their own fleet carriers. These are large, mobile, dockable vessels that will act as a base of operations for squadrons. We'll be able to refuel, rearm and respawn at them.
Exploration - More activities and tools focused on how we find stuff in the galaxy. This affects missions, commodities, other resources. New phenomenons, new anomalies for us to find in the galaxy.
The Codex - An archive that logs our exploration achievements and acts as a repository for game lore. It will log our discoveries and will also act as an encyclopedia, giving more depth and context to the things we find. And also possibly hinting at other things that we might be able to find out there.
Mining - Improvements to the way we detect and extract resources. A miner's toolkit of modules and capabilities, for more options, variety and choice when we're in deep space. Trying to invoke the feeling of Wild West prospecting through jeopardy (crises, unforseen challenges to get the rewards) or through the concept of hitting the motherlode (deep core blasting, an entire special asteroid for big rewards). Trying to make mining a fully fledged career - Image
Planetary Tech - Improvements to the scatter rocks system, by adding a bigger variety of sizes and scales to them. Improving ambient effects, planetary phenomena, volumetric effects and vapour.
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