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[Table] Asteroid Day AMA – We’re engineers and scientists working on a mission that could, one day, help save humankind from asteroid extinction. Ask us anything!

Source
There are several people answering: Paolo Martino is PM, Marco Micheli is MM, Heli Greus is HG, Detlef Koschny is DVK, and Aidan Cowley is AC.
Questions Answers
Can we really detect any asteroids in space with accuracy and do we have any real means of destroying it? Yes, we can detect new asteroids when they are still in space. Every night dozens of new asteroids are found, including a few that can come close to the Earth.
Regarding the second part of the question, the goal would be to deflect them more than destroy them, and it is technologically possible. The Hera/DART mission currently being developed by ESA and NASA will demonstrate exactly this capability.
MM
I always wanted to ask: what is worse for life on Earth - to be hit by a single coalesced asteroid chunk, or to be hit by a multiple smaller pieces of exploded asteroid, aka disrupted rubble pile scenario? DVK: This is difficult to answer. If the rubble is small (centimetres to meters) it is better to have lots of small ones – they’d create nice bright meteors. If the rubble pieces are tens of meters it doesn’t help.
Let’s say that hypothetically, an asteroid the size of Rhode Island is coming at us, it will be a direct hit - you’ve had the resources and funding you need, your plan is fully in place, everything you’ve wanted you got. The asteroid will hit in 10 years, what do you do? DVK: I had to look up how big Rhode Island is – a bit larger than the German Bundesland ‘Saarland’. Ok – this would correspond to an object about 60 km in diameter, right? That’s quite big – we would need a lot of rocket launches, this would be extremely difficult. I would pray. The good news is that we are quite convinced that we know all objects larger than just a few kilometers which come close to our planet. None of them is on a collision course, so we are safe.
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Why are you quite convinced that you know all object of that size? And what is your approach in finding new celestial bodies? DVK: There was a scientific study done over a few years (published in Icarus 2018, search for Granvik) where they modelled how many objects there are out there. They compared this to the observations we have with the telescopic surveys. This gives us the expected numbers shown here on our infographic: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2018/06/Asteroid_danger_explained
There are additional studies to estimate the ‘completeness’ – and we think that we know everything above roughly a few km in size.
To find new objects, we use survey telescopes that scan the night sky every night. The two major ones are Catalina and Pan-STARRS, funded by NASA. ESA is developing the so-called Flyeye telescope to add to this effort https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2017/02/Flyeye_telescope.
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Thanks for the answer, that's really interesting! It's also funny that the fist Flyeye deployed is in Sicily, at less than 100km from me, I really had no idea DVK: Indeed, that's cool. Maybe you can go and visit it one day.
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What about Interstellar objects however, like Oumuamua? DVK: The two that we have seen - 'Oumuamua and comet Borisov - were much smaller than the Saarland (or Rhode Island ;-) - not sure about Borisov, but 'Oumuamua was a few hundred meters in size. So while they could indeed come as a complete surprise, they are so rare that I wouldn't worry.
Would the public be informed if an impending asteroid event were to happen? And, how would the extinction play out? Bunch of people crushed to death, knocked off our orbit, dust clouds forever? DVK: We do not keep things secret – all our info is at the web page http://neo.ssa.esa.int. The ‘risky’ objects are in the ‘risk page’. We also put info on really close approaches there. It would also be very difficult to keep things ‘under cover’ – there are many high-quality amateur astronomers out there that would notice.
In 2029 asteroid Apophis will fly really close to Earth, even closer than geostationary satellites. Can we use some of those satellites to observe the asteroid? Is it possible to launch very cheap cube sats to flyby Apophis in 2029? DVK: Yes an Apophis mission during the flyby in 2029 would be really nice. We even had a special session on that topic at the last Planetary Defense Conference in 2019, and indeed CubeSats were mentioned. This would be a nice university project – get me a close-up of the asteroid with the Earth in the background!
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So you’re saying it was discussed and shelved? In the conference we just presented ideas. To make them happen needs funding - in the case of ESA the support of our member countries. But having something presented at a conference is the first step. One of the results of the conference was a statement to space agencies to consider embarking on such a mission. See here: https://www.cosmos.esa.int/documents/336356/336472/PDC_2019_Summary_Report_FINAL_FINAL.pdf/341b9451-0ce8-f338-5d68-714a0aada29b?t=1569333739470
Go to the section 'resolutions'. This is now a statement that scientists can use to present to their funding agencies, demonstrating that it's not just their own idea.
Thanks for doing this AMA! Did we know the Chelyabinsk meteor in 2013 (the one which had some great videos on social media) was coming? Ig not, how comes? Also, as a little side one, have there been any fatalities from impact events in the past 20 years? Unfortunately, the Chelyabinsk object was not seen in advance, because it came from the direction of the Sun where ground-based telescopes cannot look.
No known fatalities from impacts have happened in the past 20 years, although the Chelyabinsk event did cause many injuries, fortunately mostly minor.
MM
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How often do impacts from that direction happen, compared to impacts from visible trajectories? In terms of fraction of the sky, the area that cannot be easily scanned from the ground is roughly a circle with a radius of 40°-50° around the current position of the Sun, corresponding to ~15% of the total sky. However, there is a slight enhancement of objects coming from that direction, therefore the fraction of objects that may be missed when heading towards us is a bit higher.
However, this applies only when detecting an asteroid in its "final plunge" towards the Earth. Larger asteroids can be spotted many orbits earlier, when they are farther away and visible in the night side of the sky. Their orbits can then be determined and their possible impacts predicted even years or decades in advance.
MM
There must be a trade-off when targeting asteroids as they get closer to Earth, is there a rule of thumb at what the best time is to reach them, in terms of launch time versus time to reach the asteroid and then distance from Earth? DVK: Take e.g. a ‘kinetic impactor’ mission, like what DART and Hera are testing. Since we only change the velocity of the asteroid slightly, we need to hit the object early enough so that the object has time to move away from it’s collision course. Finding out when it is possible to launch requires simulations done by our mission analysis team. They take the strength of the launcher into account, also the available fuel for course corrections, and other things. Normally each asteroid has its own best scenario.
Do you also look at protecting the moon from asteroids? Would an impact of a large enough scale potentially have major impacts on the earth? DVK: There are programmes that monitor the Moon and look for flashes from impacting small asteroids (or meteoroids) - https://neliota.astro.noa.g or the Spanish MIDAS project. We use the data to improve our knowledge about these objects. These programmes just look at what is happening now.
For now we would not do anything if we predicted a lunar impact. I guess this will change once we have a lunar base in place.
Why aren't there an international organisation comprised of countries focused on the asteroid defence? Imagine like the organisation with multi-billion $ budget and program of action on funding new telescopes, asteroid exploration mission, plans for detection of potentially dangerous NEA, protocols on action after the detection - all international, with heads of states discussing these problems? DVK: There are international entities in place, mandated by the UN: The International Asteroid Warning Network (http://www.iawn.net) and the Space Mission Planning Advisory Group (http://www.smpag.net). These groups advise the United Nations. That is exactly where we come up with plans and protocols on action. But: They don’t have budget – that needs to come from elsewhere. I am expecting that if we have a real threat, we would get the budget. Right now, we don’t have a multi-billion budget.
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There is no actual risk of any sizable asteroids hitting earth in the foreseeable future. Any preparation for it would just be a waste of money. DVK: Indeed, as mentioned earlier, we do not expect a large object to hit is in the near future. We are mainly worried about those in the size range of 20 m to 40 m, which happen on average every few tens of years to hundreds of years. And where we only know a percent of them or even less.
President Obama wanted to send a crewed spacecraft to an asteroid - in your opinion is this something that should still be done in the future, would there be any usefulness in having a human being walk/float on an asteroid's surface? DVK: It would definitely be cool. I would maybe even volunteer to go. Our current missions to asteroids are all robotic, the main reason is that it is much cheaper (but still expensive) to get the same science. But humans will expand further into space, I am sure. If we want to test human exploration activities, doing this at an asteroid would be easier than landing on a planet.
this is another reply Yes, but I am slightly biased by the fact that I work at the European astronaut centre ;) There exist many similarities to what we currently do for EVA (extra vehicular activities) operations on the International Space Station versus how we would 'float' around an asteroid. Slightly biased again, but using such a mission to test exploration technologies would definitely still have value. Thanks Obama! - AC
I've heard that some asteroids contains large amounts of iron. Is there a possibility that we might have "space mines" in the far away future, if our own supply if iron runs out? Yes, this is a topic in the field known as space mining, part of what we call Space Resources. In fact, learning how we can process material we might find on asteroids or other planetary bodies is increasingly important, as it opens up the opportunities for sustainable exploration and commercialization. Its a technology we need to master, and asteroids can be a great target for testing how we can create space mines :) - AC
By how much is DART expected to deflect Didymos? Do we have any indication of the largest size of an asteroid we could potentially deflect? PM: Didymos is a binary asteroid, consisting of a main asteroid Didymos A (~700m) and a smaller asteroid Didymos B (~150m) orbiting around A with a ~12 hours period. DART is expected to impact Didymos B and change its orbital period w.r.t. Didymos A of ~1%. (8 mins)
The size of Didymos B is the most representative of a potential threat to Earth (the highest combination of probability and consequence of impacts), meaning smaller asteroids hit the Earth more often but have less severe consequences, larger asteroids can have catastrophic consequences but their probability of hitting the earth is very very low.
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Why is there less probability of larger asteroids hitting earth? DVK: There are less large objects out there. The smaller they are, the more there are.
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Is there any chance that your experiment will backfire and send the asteroid towards earth? PM: Not at all, or we would not do that :) Actually Dimorphos (the Didymos "moon") will not even leave its orbit around Didymos. It will just slightly change its speed.
I'm sure you've been asked this many times but how realistic is the plot of Armageddon? How likely is it that our fate as a species will rely on (either) Bruce Willis / deep sea oil drillers? Taking into consideration that Bruce Willis is now 65 and by the time HERA is launched he will be 69, I do not think that we can rely on him this time (although I liked the movie).
HERA will investigate what method we could use to deflect asteroid and maybe the results will show that we indeed need to call the deep sea oil drillers.
HG
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So then would it be easier to train oil drillers to become astronauts, or to train astronauts to be oil drillers? I do not know which one would be easier since I have no training/experience of deep see oil drilling nor becoming an astronaut, but as long as the ones that would go to asteroid have the sufficient skills and training (even Bruce Willis), I would be happy.
HG
If budget was no object, which asteroid would you most like to send a mission to? Nice question! For me, I'd be looking at an asteroid we know something about, since I would be interested in using it for testing how we could extract resources from it. So for me, I would choose Itokawa (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/25143_Itokawa), which was visited by Hayabusa spacecraft. So we already have some solid prospecting carried out for this 'roid! - AC
this is another reply Not sure if it counts as an asteroid, but Detlef and myself would probably choose ʻOumuamua, the first discovered interstellar object.
MM
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Do we even have the capability to catch up to something like that screaming through our solar system? That thing has to have a heck of a velocity to just barrel almost straight through like that. DVK: Correct, that would be a real challenge. We are preparing for a mission called 'Comet Interceptor' that is meant to fly to an interstellar object or at least a fresh comet - but it will not catch up with it, it will only perform a short flyby.
https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Space_Science/ESA_s_new_mission_to_intercept_a_comet
After proving to be able to land on one, could an asteroid serve as a viable means to transport goods and or humans throughout the solar system when the orbit of said asteroid proves beneficial. While it is probably quite problematic to land the payload, it could save fuel or am I mistaken? Neat idea! Wonder if anyone has done the maths on the amount of fuel you would need/save vs certain targets. - AC
PM: To further complement, the saving is quite marginal indeed because in order to land (softly) on the asteroid you actually need to get into the very same orbit of that asteroid . At that point your orbit remains the same whether you are on the asteroid or not..
can the current anti-ballistic missiles systems intercept a terminal phase earth strike asteroid? or it is better to know beforehand and launch an impacting vehicle into space? DVK: While I do see presentations on nuclear explosions to deflect asteroids at our professional meetings, I have not seen anybody yet studying how we could use existing missile systems. So it's hard to judge whether existing missiles would do the job. But in general, it is better to know as early as possible about a possible impact and deflect it as early as possible. This will minimize the needed effort.
How much are we prepared against asteroid impacts at this moment? DVK: 42… :-) Seriously – I am not sure how to quantify ‘preparedness’. We have international working groups in place, mentioned earlier (search for IAWN, SMPAG). We have a Planetary Defence Office at ESA, a Planetary Defense Office at NASA (who spots the difference?), search the sky for asteroids, build space missions… Still we could be doing more. More telescopes to find the object, a space-based telescope to discover those that come from the direction of the Sun. Different test missions would be useful, … So there is always more we could do.
Have you got any data on the NEO coverage? Is there estimations on the percentage of NEOs we have detected and are tracking? How can we improve the coverage? How many times have asteroids been able to enter earths atmosphere without being detected beforehand? Here’s our recently updated infographics with the fraction of undiscovered NEOs for each size range: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2018/06/Asteroid_danger_explained
As expected, we are now nearly complete for the large ones, while many of the smaller ones are still unknown.
In order to improve coverage, we need both to continue the current approach, centered on ground-based telescopes, and probably also launch dedicated telescopes to space, to look at the fraction of the sky that cannot be easily observed from the ground (e.g., towards the Sun).
Regarding the last part of your question, small asteroids enter the Earth atmosphere very often (the infographics above gives you some numbers), while larger ones are much rarer.
In the recent past, the largest one to enter our atmosphere was about 20 meters in diameter, and it caused the Chelyabinsk event in 2013. It could not be detected in advance because it came from the direction of the Sun.
We have however detected a few small ones before impact. The first happened in 2008, when a ~4-meter asteroid was found to be on a collision course less than a day before impact, it was predicted to fall in Northern Sudan, and then actually observed falling precisely where (and when) expected.
MM
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DVK: And to add what MM said - Check out http://neo.ssa.esa.int. There is a ‘discovery statistics’ section which provides some of the info you asked about. NASA is providing similar information here https://cneos.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/. To see the sky which is currently covered by the survey telescopes, you need to service of the Minor Planet Center which we all work together with: http://www.minorplanetcenter.org, ‘observers’, ‘sky coverage’. That is a tool we use to plan where we look with our telescopes, so it is a more technical page.
Are there any automatic systems for checking large numbers of asteroids orbits, to see if the asteroid's orbit is coming dangerously close to Earth, or is it done by people individually for every asteroid? I ask it because LSST Rubin is coming online soon and you know it will discover a lot of new asteroids. Yes, such systems exist, and monitor all known and newly discovered asteroids in order to predict possible future impacts.
The end result of the process is what we call "risk list": http://neo.ssa.esa.int/risk-page
It is automatically updated every day once new observational data is processed.
MM
What are your favourite sci-fi series? DVK: My favorites are ‘The Expanse’, I also liked watching ‘Salvation’. For the first one I even got my family to give me a new subscription to a known internet streaming service so that I can see the latest episodes. I also loved ‘The Jetsons’ and ‘The Flintstones’ as a kid. Not sure the last one counts as sci-fi though. My long-time favorite was ‘Dark Star’.
this is another reply Big fan of The Expanse at the moment. Nice, hard sci-fi that has a good impression of being grounded in reality - AC
this is another reply When I was a kid I liked The Jetsons, when growing up Star Trek, Star wars and I also used to watch with my sister the 'V'.
HG
When determining the potential threat of a NEA, is the mass of an object a bigger factor or size? I'm asking because I'm curious if a small but massive object (say, with the density of Psyche) could survive atmospheric entry better than a comparatively larger but less massive object. The mass is indeed what really matters, since it’s directly related with the impact energy.
And as you said composition also matters, a metal object would survive atmospheric entry better, not just because it’s heavier, but also because of its internal strength.
MM
What are your thoughts on asteroid mining as portrayed in sci-fi movies? Is it feasible? If so would governments or private space programs be the first to do so?What type of minerals can be found on asteroids that would merit the costs of extraction? Certainly there is valuable stuff you can find on asteroids. For example, the likely easiest material you can harvest from an asteroid would be volatiles such as H2O. Then you have industrial metals, things like Iron, Nickel, and Platinum group metals. Going further, you can break apart many of the oxide minerals you would find to get oxygen (getting you closer to producing rocket fuel in-situ!). Its feasible, but still needs alot of testing both here on Earth and eventually needs to be tested on a target. It may be that governments, via agencies like ESA or NASA, may do it first, to prove the principles somewhat, but I know many commercial entities are also aggresively working towards space mining. To show you that its definitely possible, I'd like to plug the work of colleagues who have processed lunar regolith (which is similar to what you may find on asteroids) to extract both oxygen and metals. Check it out here: http://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2019/10/Oxygen_and_metal_from_lunar_regolith
AC
Will 2020's climax be a really big rock? DVK: Let's hope not...
Considering NASA, ESA, IAU etc. is working hard to track Earth-grazing asteroids, how come the Chelyabinsk object that airburst over Russia in 2013 came as a total surprise? The Chelyabinsk object came from the direction of the Sun, where unfortunately ground-based telescopes cannot look at. Therefore, it would not have been possible to discover it in advance with current telescopes. Dedicated space telescopes are needed to detect objects coming from this direction in advance.
MM
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Is this to say that it was within specific solid angles for the entire time that we could have observed it given its size and speed? Yes, precisely that. We got unlucky in this case.
MM
Have any of you read Lucifer's Hammer by Larry Niven? In your opinion, how realistic is his depiction of an asteroid strike on Earth? DVK: I have – but really long ago, so I don’t remember the details. But I do remember that I really liked the book, and I remember I always wanted to have a Hot Fudge Sundae when reading it.
I was thinking about the asteroid threat as a teen and came up with this ideas (Hint: they are not equally serious, the level of craziness goes up real quick). Could you please comment on their feasibility? 1. Attaching a rocket engine to an asteroid to make it gradually change trajectory, do that long in advance and it will miss Earth by thousands of km 2. Transporting acid onto asteroid (which are mainly metal), attaching a dome-shaped reaction chamber to it, using heat and pressure to then carry out the chemical reaction to disintegrate asteroids 3. This one is even more terrible than a previous one and totally Dan Brown inspired — transporting antimatter on asteroid, impacting and causing annihilation. Thank you for this AMA and your time! DVK: Well the first one is not so crazy, I have seen it presented... the difficulty is that all asteroids are rotating in one way or another. So if you continuously fire the engine it would not really help. You'd need to switch the engine on and off. Very complex. And landing on an asteroid is challenging too. Just using the 'kinetic impactor' which we will test with DART/Hera (described elsewhere in this chat) is simpler. Another seriously proposed concept is to put a spacecraft next to an asteroid and use an ion engine (like we have on our Mercury mission BepiColombo) to 'push' the asteroid away.
As for 2 and 3 I think I will not live to see that happening ;-)
What is the process to determine the orbit of a newly discovered asteroid? The process is mathematically quite complex, but here's a short summary.
Everything starts with observations, in particular with measurements of the position of an asteroid in the sky, what we call "astrometry". Discovery telescopes extract this information from their discovery images, and make it available to everybody.
These datapoints are then used to calculate possible trajectories ("orbits") that pass through them. At first, with very few points, many orbits will be possible.
Using these orbits we can extrapolate where the asteroid will be located during the following nights, use a telescope to observe that part of the sky, and locate the object again.
From these new observations we can extract new "astrometry", add it to the orbit determination, and see that now only some of the possible orbits will be compatible with the new data. As a result, we now know the trajectory better than before, because a few of the possible orbits are not confirmed by the new data.
The cycle can then continue, with new predictions, new observations, and a more accurate determination of the object's orbit, until it can be determined with an extremely high level of accuracy.
MM
What are some asteroids that are on your "watchlist"? We have exactly that list on our web portal: http://neo.ssa.esa.int/risk-page
It's called "risk list", and it includes all known asteroids for which we cannot exclude a possible impact over the next century. It is updated every day to include newly discovered asteroids, and remove those that have been excluded as possible impactors thanks to new observations.
MM
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That's quite a list!! Do you guys ever feel stressed or afraid when you have to add another dangerous candidate (and by dangerous I mean those above 200m) is added to this Risk List? Yes, when new dangerous ones are added it's important that we immediately do our best to gather more data on them, observing them with telescopes in order to get the information we need to improve our knowledge of their orbit.
And then the satisfaction of getting the data needed to remove one from the list is even greater!
MM
What inspired you to go into this field of study? I was fascinated by astronomy in general since I was a kid, but the actual "trigger" that sparked my interest in NEOs was a wonderful summer course on asteroids organized by a local amateur astronomers association. I immediately decided that I would do my best to turn this passion into my job, and I'm so happy to have been able to make that dream come true.
MM
this is another reply DVK: I started observing meteors when I was 14, just by going outside and looking at the night sky. Since then, small bodies in the solar system were always my passion.
As a layperson, I still think using nuclear weapons against asteroids is the coolest method despite better methods generally being available. Do you still consider the nuclear option the cool option, or has your expertise in the field combined with the real-life impracticalities made it into a laughable/silly/cliche option? DVK: We indeed still study the nuclear option. There are legal aspects though, the ‘outer space treaty’ forbids nuclear explosions in space. But for a large object or one we discover very late it could be useful. That’s why we have to focus on discovering all the objects out there as early as possible – then we have time enough to use more conventional deflection methods, like the kinetic impactor (the DART/Hera scenario).
It seems like doing this well would require international cooperation, particularly with Russia. Have you ever reached out to Russia in your work? Do you have a counterpart organization there that has a similar mission? DVK: Indeed international cooperation is important - asteroids don't know about our borders! We work with a Russian team to perform follow-up observations of recently discovered NEOs. Russia is also involved in the UN-endorsed working groups that we have, IAWN and SMPAG (explained in another answer).
how much can experts tell from a video of a fireball or meteor? Can you work out what it's made of and where it came from? https://www.reddit.com/space/comments/hdf3xe/footage_of_a_meteor_at_barrow_island_australia/?utm_source=share&utm_medium=web2x If multiple videos or pictures, taken from different locations, are available, then it's possible to reconstruct the trajectory, and extrapolate where the object came from.
Regarding the composition, it's a bit more difficult if nothing survives to the ground, but some information can be obtained indirectly from the fireball's color, or its fragmentation behavior. If a spectral analysis of the light can be made, it's then possible to infer the chemical composition in much greater detail.
MM
I've always wanted to know what the best meteorite buying site is and what their average price is?? DVK: Serious dealers will be registered with the 'International Meteorite Collectors Association (IMCA)' - https://www.imca.cc/. They should provide a 'certificate of authenticity' where it says that they are member there. If you are in doubt, you can contact the association and check. Normally there are rough prices for different meteorite types per gram. Rare meteorites will of course be much more expensive than more common ones. Check the IMCA web page to find a dealer close to you.
Just read through Aidans link to the basaltic rock being used as a printing material for lunar habitation. There is a company called Roxul that does stone woven insulation that may be able to shed some light on the research they have done to minimize their similarity to asbestos as potentially carcinogenic materials deemed safe for use in commercial and residential applications. As the interior surfaces will essentially be 3D printed lunar regolith what are the current plans to coat or dampen the affinity for the structure to essentially be death traps for respiratory illness? At least initially, many of these 3d printed regolith structures would not be facing into pressurised sections, but would rather be elements placed outside and around our pressure vessels. Such structures would be things like radiation shields, landing pads or roadways, etc. In the future, if we move towards forming hermetically sealed structures, then your point is a good one. Looking into terrestrial solutions to this problem would be a great start! - AC
What kind of career path does it take to work in the asteroid hunting field? It's probably different for each of us, but here's a short summary of my own path.
I became interested in asteroids, and near-Earth objects in particular, thanks to a wonderful summer course organized by a local amateur astronomers association. Amateur astronomers play a great role in introducing people, and young kids in particular, to these topics.
Then I took physics as my undergrad degree (in Italy), followed by a Ph.D. in astronomy in the US (Hawaii in particular, a great place for astronomers thanks to the exceptional telescopes hosted there).
After finishing the Ph.D. I started my current job at ESA's NEO Coordination Centre, which allowed me to realize my dream of working in this field.
MM
this is another reply DVK: Almost all of us have a Master's degree either in aerospace engineering, mathematics, physics/astronomy/planetary science, or computer science. Some of us - as MM - have a Ph.D. too. But that's not really a requirement. This is true for our team at ESA, but also for other teams in other countries.
What is the likelihood of an asteroid hitting the Earth In the next 200 years? It depends on the size, large ones are rare, while small ones are much more common. You can check this infographics to get the numbers for each size class: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2018/06/Asteroid_danger_explained
MM
Have you played the Earth Defence Force games and if you have, which one is your favourite? No I have not played the Earth Defence Force games, but I just looked it up and I think I would liked it. Which one would you recommend?
HG
How close is too close to earth? Space is a SUPER vast void so is 1,000,000 miles close, 10,000,000? And if an asteroid is big enough can it throw earth off its orbit? DVK: Too close for my taste is when we compute an impact probability > 0 for the object. That means the flyby distance is zero :-) Those are the objects on our risk page http://neo.ssa.esa.int/risk-page.
If an object can alter the orbit of another one, we would call it planet. So unless we have a rogue planet coming from another solar system (verrry unlikely) we are safe from that.
How can I join you when I'm older? DVK: Somebody was asking about our career paths... Study aerospace engineering or math or physics or computer science, get a Masters. Possibly a Ph.D. Then apply for my position when I retire. Check here for how to apply at ESA: https://www.esa.int/About_Us/Careers_at_ESA/Frequently_asked_questions2#HR1
How much is too much? DVK: 42 again
Are you aware of any asteroids that are theoretically within our reach, or will be within our reach at some point, that are carrying a large quantity of shungite? If you're not aware, shungite is like a 2 billion year old like, rock stone that protects against frequencies and unwanted frequencies that may be traveling in the air. I bought a whole bunch of the stuff. Put them around the la casa. Little pyramids, stuff like that. DVK: If I remember my geology properly, Shungite forms in water sedimental deposits. This requires liquid water, i.e. a larger planet. So I don't think there is a high chance to see that on asteroids.
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submitted by IQstockbroker to u/IQstockbroker [link] [comments]

10-06 18:33 - '“Bitcoin Code Review Australia” - Is “Bitcoin Code Australia” Scam? My SHOCKING Results!' (self.Bitcoin) by /u/thebitcoincode786 removed from /r/Bitcoin within 15-25min

'''
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“Bitcoin Code Review Australia” - Is “Bitcoin Code Australia” Scam? My SHOCKING Results!
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submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

Tumult in your Model Parliament: private members overtake government bills (Fri 21 Aug 2015)

FRIDAY 21 AUGUST 2015 | NATIONAL POLITICS | CITIZENS’ PRESS
There’s finally been some activity in parliament this week. Very little of it has interfaced with the community, but at least some debates have been underway. Three new bills were introduced into the House of Representatives and could pass next week (the government’s previous commitment to public consultation has gone out the window). The first tied vote almost happened. Diplomatic relations have been extended, but the government hasn’t made any announcements. The possibility of holding any constitutional referendums at the next federal election sits on a knife edge.
Up until today, most of the week’s excitement in /ModelParliament and /ModelAusHR had come from lurker281 MP. Finally, on Friday, there has been some new play from the government, opposition and cross-benches. The deafening silence from most Government MPs has seen private members’ bills supplant the Greens’ legislative agenda. Conversely, Labor MPs’ non-participation has cost the Deputy Opposition Leader two votes in the House.
SOCIALIST ALTERNATIVE, LIBERAL PARTY & AUSTRALIAN PROGRESSIVES
The Socialist Alternative’s only sitting politician, lower house member for Melbourne Surrounds lurker281 MP, announced their departure from that party and has now joined the Australian Progressives instead. They retain their seat in parliament. An official statement from the MP is expected in parliament soon, announcing their move from the cross benches to the opposition benches. This move was due to party inactivity, not because of internal conflict (unless GuestAlt has any leaks to report).
Both the Liberal Party and Socialist Alternative are now gone from the 20-member parliament. The Greens, Labor, Progressives, Catholics and 3 independents remain.
More: [Public Forum] Lurker281, Member for Melbourne Surrounds. More: [PRESS CONFERENCE] Lurker281: Leaving the Socialist Alternative Party. More: [Press Conference] Lurker281: Joining the Australian Progressives.
IMMIGRATION PORTFOLIO: DETENTION OF NON-CITIZENS (OPPOSITION COALITION)
The week’s major policy development has also come from lurker281 MP who introduced their hotly-anticipated Migration Amendment bill, with personal support from the Prime Minister. It was their last act before leaving the Socialist Alternative. The new measures, if passed, will have budget implications and could undo the slashing of the Sovereign Borders budget announced two weeks ago. In-principle support from the government is due to be tested in parliament when the bill is debated.
Lurker281’s introductory speech (“second-reading debate”), highlighted measures for the humane processing of asylum seekers, new minimum standards for detention centres, and an option for community onshore processing. The effects of the bill have not yet been itemised in parliament, but a preliminary analysis of key provisions by Citizens’ Press reveals:
Section 4AAA Immigration detention: Declares detention centres as a last resort, to be used for the shortest time possible, and only to manage risks to the community while a non-citizen’s immigration status is being resolved (visa or deportation).
Section 38B Maritime crew visas & Section 114 Visas 7 Section 133F: Allow legal recourse relating to detention.
Section 133F & 137K Applications: Remove statute of limitations.
Section 154: Repeal some legal immunity from detention enforcement officers.
Section 189(1) Detention of unlawful non‑citizens: Limit the justifications for mandatory detention and make it discretionary, unless the person poses an unacceptable risk to the community.
Section 193 Application of law to certain non‑citizens while they remain in immigration detention: Remove limitations on legal rights.
Section 194A Temporary community access permission: This entirely-optional strategy (allowing a ‘detained’ person to be unrestrained and unsupervised during processing) was introduced by Rudd Labor but did not make it through parliament. An extensive discussion of it, including public submissions and parliamentary committee review, can be found IRL (PDF, 47 pages, 615 kB).
Section 256: Ensure mandatory advice is given to detainees rather than waiting for them to request it, so that no one misses out.
Section 508 Detention Centre Conditions: Raise the minimum standards for detention centre conditions and treatment will “require a significant increase in spending”.
There has not been public consultation on this bill, however some questions were raised in lurker281’s personal public forum.
Portfolio Office Bearer Party Achievements
Minister for Immigration and Tourism Hon VoteRonaldRayGun MP Australian Greens None
Private Member lurker281 MP Socialist Alternative (now Australian Progressives) Migration Amendment (introduced)
More: lurker281 MP’s introductory bill speech (second reading debate, opening remarks) More: [Public Forum] Lurker281, Member for Melbourne Surrounds. More: M2015B00009: HoR 12-8: Bill – As Introduced – Migration Amendment (Detention of Non-citizens) Bill 2015, Monday 17 August 2015
ENERGY PORTFOLIO: CARBON PRICING (GOVERNMENT) & RENEWABLE ENERGY TARGET (OPPOSITION COALITION)
The Treasurer Hon agsports MP (possibly acting in a personal capacity to spur discussion) recently floated the idea of re-introducing a fixed-price carbon tax. A public forum is currently underway in /modelparliament. So far, most of the public opinion has favoured an international capped-Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) at market rates, not a carbon tax. Add your voice today!
This comes hot on the heals of the Opposition Coalition’s (Labor and Progressives) launch an enhanced Renewable Energy Target. The government has silently supported this revised RET in parliament, but we haven’t heard how it will achieve the results, given Australia’s backward steps since 2013.
The Greens’ Energy Minister, Hon TheEvilestElf MP, has been AWOL for two weeks and has not publicly commented on any of these issues at any stage.
Portfolio Office Bearer Party Achievements
Minister for Resources and Energy Hon TheEvilestElf MP Australian Greens None
Opposition Coalition Leader Senator Hon this_guy22 Australian Labor Party RET Act (50% by 2035, 150 TWh)
More: Public consultation on re-implementation of a carbon tax More: Good Policy - The Building Blocks of a Good Government.
HEALTH PORTFOLIO: UNIVERSAL DENTAL CARE
The Progressives are making good on their [election promise of federally-provided free dental care](3d7usf) by announcing the Denticare bill today. Read their press statements, view the bill, and join in the conversation now. It’s worth up to $10 billion a year, with the cost partially offset by an increased Medicare Surcharge. Their Opposition Coalition partner Labor has challenged the government to help fund it by repealing the $3b private health rebate and removing the 50% capital gains tax discount.
Portfolio Office Bearer Party Achievements
Minister for Health ? Australian Greens ?
Shadow Minister for Health phyllicanderer MP Australian Progressives Denticare Bill (TBC)
More: [Press conference] Introducing the Dental Benefits Amendment (Denticare) Bill 2015
DEFENCE PORTFOLIO: DECLARATION OF WAR
Since the Greens announced a $4 billion cut to the military budget, there have been few if any announcements about Defence. Today, the Minister for Defence Hon MadCreek3 MP has floated the idea of Constitutionally blocking the Executive Government’s power to declare war. Currently, the Commander-in-Chief (Governor-General) can declare a time of war based on Government Ministers’ advice in the Top Secret Federal Executive Council. It is currently a signatory to the United Nations Charter which means this is only done in cooperation with the UN Security Council. The last time Australia declared war was 1939. Instead, Australia’s involvement in the modern era is usually by providing assistance to allies at war.
Community feedback so far has been against Constitutional change, especially due if it means giving up Australia’s ability to act quickly and with the necessary secrecy. Instead, it’s been suggested that some kind of parliamentary parliamentary supermajority should be required to keep our troops on the ground. This would amount to resolving that current actions are reasonable, without necessarily revealing confidential information. This kind of power could also be used to limit sub-war campaigns like in the middle east, whether combat or training. Add your voice today!
More: [Public Consultation] Parliamentary Right to Declare War
THE TIE-BREAKER THAT WASN’T TO BE
Up until now, the government and opposition have generally been able to negotiate agreement and vote together, meaning most motions pass with an absolute majority of members voting Aye (albeit rarely unanimously). But on Tuesday, a House of Reps vote was tied 4:4 for the first time, with Government MP Hon TheEvilestElf and Cross-Bencher MP Sooky88 absent. The tie was broken by a 5th Aye from the government, narrowly defeating the opposition when coalition Labor MP CyberPolis didn’t show up to vote. Speakers of the House haven’t yet needed to exercise a casting vote.
REDDIPOLL SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS
Several people in parliament still aren’t doing ReddiPoll. Last week was another low show from Greens, with only 4 turning up (out of 8 in parliament and over 40 party members flaired). ReddiPoll is going a couple of weeks without new laws for you to vote on, because nothing’s been passed through parliament recently. The current government has only introduced 2 new bills in the first 5 weeks of its term (one in the first week and one this week). The Senate is still discussing bills from nearly 60 days ago. The public confidence-in-government rating has shifted from ‘unsure’ to ‘wrong direction’. We’re now relying on private members’s bills to keep the place alive. However, Greens voters are likely to get mobilised for the Senate half-election in September, meaning results could go in any direction from now on.
More: Previous week’s summary and analysis
PUBLIC FORUMS
Compensating for the lack of official policy consultation from the government, several personal public forums have been held in /modelparliament. The ones mentioned above, plus more below:
More: [Public forum] Unhappy with the government? More: [Public Forum] MadCreek3 - MP for Melbourne Urban and Minister for Foreign Affairs, Trade, and Defence
SOCIETY PORTFOLIO: MARRIAGE EQUALITY
It’s been a messy weak for Marriage Equality in parliament. [Ed: typo in weak, but it seems apt.]
There have been some anaemic attempts at debate in the Senate. Finally, a recent amendment from the Australian Catholic Party Senator Cwross has generated some counter-opposition almost 60 days since the Marriage bill was introduced. There it remains.
In the House of Representatives, the Australians Progressives’ Deputy Opposition Leader phyllicanderer MP moved to censure the Marriage Alliance’s recent actions described by some as hate speech. The Greens Attorney-General Hon Ser_Scribbles MP succeeded in watering down the motion when the (almost) tied vote went the government’s way. Immediately afterward, phyllicanderer’s attempt to restore the force of the motion failed when no one seconded it, despite Labor and the Socialist Alliance previously debating in favour of the strongest wording.
The basis of the government’s challenge was that an Australian Government has no constitutional, legal or moral right to legislate against citizens’ freedom of political speech, and therefore has no right to condemn it. Others argued that fraudulent and discriminatory speech causes harm to citizens and their rights, and so deserves the parliament’s condemnation on those grounds. Like many large scale political debates, it was a battle between the freedom of one group and the rights of others.
After waiting 8 days for MPs to debate it, it was put to the vote. Here is is:
The House of Representatives:
  1. Recognises that the Marriage Alliance has released an advertising campaign on television and online, meant to evoke fear and anger in Australians about proposed marriage equality laws; and
  2. That where the “Marriage Alliance” has stated:
    (a) that people could lose rights; and
    (b) that sex education for children would change if the proposed laws were passed; and
    (c) that children will have their rights negatively impacted under the planned new laws,
    the House categorically rejects these statements as false.
  3. That the House acknowledges that real pain has likely been caused as a result of the Marriage Alliance’s unfounded advertising campaign.
Portfolio Office Bearer Party Achievements
Minister for Society Senator Hon Team_Sprocket Australian Greens Marriage Equality Act
Deputy Opposition Coalition Leader phyllicanderer MP Australian Progressives Marriage Alliance Motion
Shadow MP for Society CyberPolis MP Australian Labor Party None
HOUSE OF REPRESENATATIVES: SETUP & COMMITTEES
Only one committee has been appointed, and it’s just an internal committee that doesn’t relate to portfolio policies. Therefore, the Setup thread remains pinned at the top of this sub.
The Procedure Committee only began meeting this afternoon. It now has a chance to deal with the Prime Minister’s motion to sack two members. It will also consider an Opposition amendment to re-arrange the general-purpose portfolio committees. Ministerial responsibility for Employment remains unclear.
FOREIGN AFFAIRS PORTFOLIO: AMBASSADORS & ATTORNEY-GENERAL’S PORTFOLIO: HIGH COURT
News remains under wraps.
SENATE
The Senate has remained mostly idle for another week, with a late start on Monday their foot off the throttle through much of the rest. It almost gave up on hopes of fully debating the National Integrity Commission and Marriage Equality bills in committee. With the NIC, Labor successfully passed a option to reduce penalties for threatening or causing harm or loss to witnesses: allowing a fine instead of jail time. It passed today the Green government’s support. A win for rich, corrupt politicians.
The controversial motion to change Senators’ terms has been withdrawn, so it never got a chance to be debated.
submitted by jnd-au to modelparliament [link] [comments]

/r/AskHistorians Guide on Finding Family Military Service Records and Military Identification

Hello everyone! We get a fair number of questions here the relate to family history, and specifically military service. There is often little that can be done however, aside from pointing someone in the right direction for their own research, so with that in mind, I've been working for the past few weeks on putting together a guide on retrieving military service records, as well as identifying from photos or uniforms just what Gramps or Grams was doing in the war. This guide will be permanently available on our Wiki (And don't forget to try /Genealogy too for these things!), but it is still a work in progress.
I'd first like to give a major shout-out to the users who helped me by writing out the procedures for several foreign countries I was unfamiliar with (See below), as well as all the flairs who offered their advice and critique. There is still more to add, so I welcome additions from countries that are not yet listed, or suggestions for how to improve sections already here, since I might have made a mistake or two. I'd especially welcome improved resources for the non-American Identification sections, as in many cases I was hard pressed to find quality material to include.
Anyways, without further ado, here you go!

United States

Requesting Records:

The US government makes available the basic records of service members to next of kin through the National Archives and Records Administration. The most common request is for the DD-214, Certificate of Release or Discharge from Active Duty (or earlier, comparable document). As the next of kin, this can be requested online through the National Archives free of charge. Some records are made available online through the Archival Databases.
Be aware that, due to a fire in 1973, the records available are incomplete, with a significant amount of loss occurring for US Army records during World War II (Other branches were not affected). The government has done their best to reconstruct the data from other sources, but it is quite possible that a request cannot be fulfilled, so take that into account when you submit the request for a DD-214.
If you are not the next-of-kin (researching an uncle, for instance), since records that are 62+ years old are considered archival, they are accessible to the general public (which you count as if you are not a parent/spouse/child/sibling), but as a non-relation, require a fee, which varies with the amount of paperwork requested. Non-next of kin must use the SF-180 form to request the records. Full procedure can be found here.
For records of service prior to World War I, however, the process is slightly different, and while still ordered online, it is done through here, and there is a fee attached regardless of being related or not. An alternative, although not always guaranteed, is to go through a service such as Ancestry.com, which has digitized tons and tons of records and makes them available to their paying subscribers. You can often find muster rolls and other military records in their collection, spanning from the Revolution up through World War II. While there is a cost associated with the service, they offer free trials, and often open up the military records to free accounts on military holidays such as Memorial Day or Veterans Day.

IDing Photos or Uniforms:

If you are looking to try and identify information based off of a uniform or from a photograph, these resources may prove to be of use.

Ranks and Awards

Branch Rank Medals/Ribbons/Decorations
Army Army Insignia, see also Army Campaign, Service, and Personal Decorations
Navy Navy Insignia Navy Medals and Ribbons
Marines Marine Insignia Marine Awards and Decorations
Air Force See Army pre-1947 Air Force Insignia Air Force Awards and Decorations
Coast Guard Coast Guard Insignia USCG Awards (See also US Navy)

For Units and other Info, See Also:

US Army Branch Insignia, US Army Division Insignia, US Army Brigade Insignia, US Army Field Group and Field Army Insignia, Other US Army Insignia, Obsolete Badges and Awards, WWI Era Markings.
US Navy Badges, List of US Navy Ships, Naval Squadrons and Inactive Squadrons, WWI Era Markings.
US Marine Corps Regimental Insignias, USMC Badges
US Air Force Squadron Emblems, US Air Force Badges
US Coast Guard Units, Insignia, Badges, and other Information

Canada

Requesting Records

Library and Archives Canada holds records for Canadian military service dating back to the 1700s, and are working to digitize their records, with much of that from 1918 and earlier already accessible online here. Records from post-1918 are restricted, and may only be accessed under certain conditions, but is accessible to the veteran themselves, or next of kin if deceased. If you wish to request copies of military service files for post-1918, including World War II, you can find more information on the process here.
As with American records, an alternative, although not always guaranteed, is to go through a service such as Ancestry.ca, which has digitized tons and tons of records and makes them available to their paying subscribers. While there is a cost associated with the service, they offer free trials, and often open up the military records to free accounts on military holidays.
In the case of a person killed in action, the Commonwealth War Graves Commission includes a searchable database of all persons killed in action in the various British and Commonwealth forces during the World Wars, which includes some information.
The Red Cross files for the WWI prisoners are available on the ICRC.

IDing Photos or Uniforms:

If you are looking to try and identify information based off of a uniform or from a photograph, these resources may prove to be of use.

Ranks and Awards

Branch Rank Awards
Canadian Army Canadian Army Insignia Current Awards and Medals and Decorations
Royal Canadian Navy, for post-1950 see here Navy Ranks Current Awards and Medals and Decorations
Royal Canadian Air Force RCAF Ranks, see also Current Awards and Medals and Decorations

For Units and other Info, See Also:

Canadian Army Rank and Appointment Insignia, Canadian Army Cap Badges, and more! World War I Patches.
Royal Canadian Navy Trade Badges, Index of Ships, Fleet air Arm Crests
RCAF Crests, Logos and Insignia

United Kingdom

Requesting Records

Military service records from prior to 1920 are available through the British National Archives, specifically for World War I service, and for service through 1913. Much of the information is accessible online through Ancestry.co.uk or FindMyPast.co.uk, which do involve fees, although the sites offer free trial periods and periodically make military records free to everyone for certain holidays. Documents can be accessed free of charge by visiting the Archives, but copies do cost money, whether done in person or by request Be aware that some records may have been destroyed by during the bombings of London in World War II.
Post-1920 records are requested from the UK Government, and can be requested by the next of kin. The spouse of a service member may request the records if they are deceased (and the service member themselves), but all other persons pay a £30 fee.
In the case of a person killed in action, the Commonwealth War Graves Commission includes a searchable database of all persons killed in action in the various British and Commonwealth forces during the World Wars, which includes some information.
The Red Cross files for the WWI prisoners are available on the ICRC.

IDing Photos or Uniforms:

If you are looking to try and identify information based off of a uniform or from a photograph, these resources may prove to be of use.

Ranks and Awards

Branch Rank Awards
British Army Army Ranks, see also Current Awards, and Medal Ribbons
Royal Navy Navy Ranks Medal Ribbons
Royal Marines RM Ranks Medal Ribbons
RAF RAF Ranks, see also Medal Ribbons

For Units and other Info, See Also:

British Army Corps and Regimental Insignia, British Army Division and Brigade Insignia, Regiments c. WWI, WWII Era Formation Badges, Standards and Cap Badges. For Victorian Era Ranks.
Royal Navy and Royal Marine Badges, Royal Navy Badges and Insignia, Royal Navy Ships, Ship and Sub Badges, Fleet Air Arm Badges.
Royal Marine Unit Insignia, and Badges Generally.
Royal Air Force Badges and Insignia, Distinguishing Insignia, Squadron Crests, List of Squadrons, Air Historical Branch

Australia

Requesting Records

Australian military records can be found through both the Australian War Memorial and the National Archives of Australia. Records for more recent service are requested through the Department of Defense.
The Australian War Memorial provides for the searching of various rolls, and provides basic biographical information off of them, such as with this example or this one. Many of the records are digitized.
The National Archives of Australia holds service records from the through World War II. Boer War, World War I, and World War II records are digitized and can be viewed online. Navy Officers and Petty and Enlisted Men are digitized as well in a separate collection. To order physical copies of documents, select "Request a Copy" on the Item Detail Page in RecordSearch
Korean and Vietnam records are held by the Department of Defence. They are searchable, but the original documents are not digitiezed. Copies can be requested through the National Archives of Australia.
In the case of a person killed in action, the Commonwealth War Graves Commission includes a searchable database of all persons killed in action in the various British and Commonwealth forces during the World Wars, which includes some information.
The Red Cross files for the WWI prisoners are available on the ICRC.

IDing Photos or Uniforms:

If you are looking to try and identify information based off of a uniform or from a photograph, these resources may prove to be of use.

Ranks and Awards

Branch Insignia Awards
Australian Army Ranks Medals and Awards
Royal Australian Navy Ranks Medals and Awards
Royal Australian Air Force Ranks Medals and Awards

See Also:

"It's An Honour", "Researching Australian Military Service, Australian Campaign Medals, AIF Badges, Badges and Emblems
List of RAN Ships, Navy Badges
RAAF Squadrons and Crests, RAAF Squadron Badges.

New Zealand

Requesting Records

Archives New Zealand holds NZ Military files through World War II, collected into various series, which can be accessed on their website. Most documents through World War I are digitized, and original documents can be accessed in person at the Archives:
Archives New Zealand, National Office, Wellington 10 Mulgrave Street Wellington 6011 04 499 5595 [email protected] 
Copies may be made of the documents during your visit using personal cameras.
Many World War II Files are in the New Zealand Defence Force Archives, and are not all digitized. They can be accessed in person at the Archives, or copies requested by contacting them at:
NZDF Archives Personnel Enquiries Trentham Military Camp Private Bag 905, Upper Hutt 5140 04 527 5280 [email protected] 
Some digitized files can be viewed through the Auckland War Memorial Museum.
In the case of a person killed in action, the Commonwealth War Graves Commission includes a searchable database of all persons killed in action in the various British and Commonwealth forces during the World Wars, which includes some information.
The Red Cross files for the WWI prisoners are available on the ICRC.

IDing Photos or Uniforms:

Ranks and Awards

See British Rank Insignia. New Zealand Ribbons / Medals

For Units and other Info, See Also:

New Zealand at War, Veteran's Affairs
NZ Corps Badges, WWII Patches

Netherlands

Requesting Records

For records prior to 1900, the best sources are the Central Bureau for Genealogy (CBG) and the National Archives (NA). The CBG website is easy to use; for the NA you may find contacting them by phone or mail easier. The Netherlands Institute of Military History (NIMH) also may have some information, though "[w]hat the NIMH mainly has to offer is a wealth of general information about life in the military in the past". Note that the information provided here has been taken from the various NIMH pages available via the link above.
There are a few specialized databases, such as this one containing information concerning sea-voyagers (including soldiers) upon ships between 1700 and 1795 who sailed to the Orient, a database of Dutch soldiers in service of Napoleon 1810-1813, and Officers' name and rank lists (1725-1989) (the latter two only available in-person at the NIMH).
For records of people born after 1900 you have to contact the Semi-static Archives Services of the Ministry of Defence. This can only be done in writing. You need to include the full name and date of birth of the person you are looking for, as well as a copy of your own identity document. The address is:
Netherlands Ministry of Defence Afdeling Semi-Statische Archiefdiensten (SSA) (Semi-static Archives Services) P.O. Box 7000 6460 NC Kerkrade Netherlands 
There are separate records for members of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (KNIL) born after 1900. These records are kept by the Stichting Administratie Indonesische Pensioenen (SAIP) (Foundation for Registration of Indonesian Pensions) (link in Dutch)
(Kudos to Polybios)

IDing Photos or Uniforms:

If you are looking to try and identify information based off of a uniform or from a photograph, these resources may prove to be of use.

Ranks and Awards

For World War II Era Army, Naval, and Air Force Insignia, see here. Additionally, many Dutch pilots flew in squadrons organized by other allied powers. For Dutch India Colonial Insignia. Handboek Onderscheidingen (Handbook Decorations [PDF, Dutch] includes pictures of all medals and ribbons awarded to Dutch military personnel.

See Also:

Orders, Decorations and Medals of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Dutch Ribbons, Military Insignia
Ships of the RNN

France

Requesting Records

A lot of the records up to WWI have been digitalised and published on the sites of the Archives Départementales.
To find the man you're looking for, you need to know 1) his year of birth, 2) where he was living when he was 20.
Once you know that, you calculate his "classe", which is his birth year + 20 years. Then you find from which "Bureau" his location depended from (a few Bureaux were set in a different département). Using the "Tables alphabétiques", you find his "numéro matricule" (serial number), then in the "Registres matricules", you find his personal record using said number.
Records for people born after 1901 are not publically available, so you have to prove your close family link with the person, unless you can prove that he's been dead for more than 25 years.
Mémoire des hommes has databases for the soldiers dead during the 20th century wars and war burials. You can also find the regiment diaries for WWI, and part of the (currently being indexed) registries for Napoleon's army.
La base Léonore contains the files for the recipients of the Légion d'honneur who died before 1977. (Some files have been lost, though.)
The Red Cross files for the WWI prisoners are available on the ICRC.
(Kudos to snakeling)

IDing Photos or Uniforms:

If you are looking to try and identify information based off of a uniform or from a photograph, these resources may prove to be of use.

Ranks and Awards

Branch Ranks Awards
French Army Pre-1914, WWI Officer and WWI Enlisted, WWII Awards
French Navy Insignia Awards
French Air Force Insignia Awards

For Units and other Info, See Also:

Army Collar Insignia, Beret Insignias
Air Force Insignia

Germany

Requesting Records

For members of the former Wehrmacht, one can request all of their records with the Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt). However, it is not possible to obtain records of surviving combatants without their permission. It is only possible to obtain information on members of the former Wehrmacht who died either in the field or in captivity, and then only with permission from the next of kin. There is an associated cost, depending on the difficulty and amount of records requested, but it is around 20€ to 30€.
The Federal Archive - Branch Office Ludwigsburg (Central Office for the Investigation of National Socialist Crimes, e-mail: [email protected]sarchiv.de) houses data on units involved in war crimes, the scenes of these crimes, suspects and culprits, as well as persons who were mentioned in the investigations of said crimes. Therefore, it might be useful to check these archives if the searched person was part of units suspected of war crimes.
The Federal Archive - Department MA (Military Archives) houses files on :
However, this needs to be taken with a grain of salt. The Department MA has lost vast amounts of its files due to war. Most of the files are war diaries written by army commanders and files on the navy.
Department R (Reich) has the largest pool of documents (from almost all eras), but these are mainly of a civil administrative nature (justice, finance, etc.).
Kirchlicher Suchdienst is focused on persons from the former eastern territories, the Balkans or the Baltic states. It also has an archive of letters, including letters from war captivity. May be costy.
Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V. an provide useful information when looking for war graves.
Additionally, the German Red Cross Tracing Service offers services that allow one to trace any missing person, be it civilian or military. This may not be the best place to look for military records, but it is a good start nonetheless.
(Kudos to ScanianMoose)

IDing Photos or Uniforms:

If you are looking to try and identify information based off of a uniform or from a photograph, these resources may prove to be of use.

Ranks and Awards

Branch Insignia Awards
German Army Deutsches Heer, Reichswehr, Heer Imperial, Third Reich
German Navy Kaiserliche Marine, Kriegsmarine Imperial, Third Reich
German Air Force Luftwaffe Third Reich
Waffen-SS Insignia Third Reich

For Units and other Info, See Also:

Badges, Insignia, and Other Stuff, Wehrmacht and SS Militaria
(1871-1918) German Army & Navy Uniforms & Insignia
Kaiserliche Marine Badges,
submitted by Georgy_K_Zhukov to AskHistorians [link] [comments]

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