Could Google's Quantum Computer Mine 3 Million Bitcoin in

Entanglement for Quantum Computing Chips Achieved, Will Bitcoin Keep Up? – BeInCrypto https://t.co/UEForr05L5

Entanglement for Quantum Computing Chips Achieved, Will Bitcoin Keep Up? – BeInCrypto https://t.co/UEForr05L5
— Digitalmunition (@maher275) January 7, 2020
from Twitter via IFTTT
submitted by shinney to digitalmunition [link] [comments]

Entanglement for Quantum Computing Chips Achieved, Will Bitcoin Keep Up?

Entanglement for Quantum Computing Chips Achieved, Will Bitcoin Keep Up? submitted by zuugzwang to cryptoall [link] [comments]

BREAKING: Engineers Just Unveiled The First-Ever Design of a Complete Quantum Computer Chip -- The Moon landing of quantum computing. /r/Bitcoin

BREAKING: Engineers Just Unveiled The First-Ever Design of a Complete Quantum Computer Chip -- The Moon landing of quantum computing. /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Bitcoin mentioned around Reddit: Google on track for quantum computer breakthrough by end of 2017 - "The company is testing a 20-qubit processor – its most powerful quantum chip yet – and is on target to have a working 49-qubit chip /r/technology

Bitcoin mentioned around Reddit: Google on track for quantum computer breakthrough by end of 2017 - submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Bitcoin mentioned around Reddit: Google says its quantum computer is more than 100 million times faster than a regular computer chip | VentureBeat | Business | by Jordan Novet /r/Futurology

Bitcoin mentioned around Reddit: Google says its quantum computer is more than 100 million times faster than a regular computer chip | VentureBeat | Business | by Jordan Novet /Futurology submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Bitcoin mentioned around Reddit: Google says its quantum computer is more than 100 million times faster than a regular computer chip | VentureBeat | Business | by Jordan Novet /r/Futurology

Bitcoin mentioned around Reddit: Google says its quantum computer is more than 100 million times faster than a regular computer chip | VentureBeat | Business | by Jordan Novet /Futurology submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

In the news • [bitcoin.com] World’s First Quantum Computer Now Possible after Silicon Chip Test

submitted by btcforumbot to BtcForum [link] [comments]

Google reportedly attains 'quantum supremacy'

Google reportedly attains 'quantum supremacy' submitted by bortkasta to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Top Futurology News - For the week of Jan 31, 2020

Top Futurology News - For the week of Jan 31, 2020

https://preview.redd.it/tqsh8pba7fe41.png?width=1916&format=png&auto=webp&s=9a7ad2c9f90e9e47c3790967fe781be5e16ed33e
We hope you enjoy this week's update!
Links to all original sources below the super long image showcasing this weeks' stories.
submitted by _FuturistechInfo to singularity [link] [comments]

[Part - 21] Large college ebooks/eTextbooks thread for cheap rates [$4 to $25]

  1. Accounting for Governmental & Nonprofit Entities 17th Edition by Reck,Jacqueline & Wilson.pdf
  2. Abraham Silberschatz, Greg Gagne, Peter B. Galvin-Operating System Concepts-Wiley (2011).pdf
  3. Abnormal Psychology, 13th Edition Ann M. Kring .pdf
  4. Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World 10th Edition by Nevid, Jeffrey S., Ph.D.pdf
  5. Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World 9th Edition.pdf
  6. ABC's of Relationship Selling through Service 6th Canadian.pdf
  7. a writer's reference.pdf
  8. A Small Scale Approach to Organic Laboratory Techniques 4th Edition.pdf
  9. A Level Physics.pdf
  10. A History of the World';s Religi - David S. Noss.pdf
  11. a history of asia 7th edition .pdf
  12. a cross section of nursing res.azw
  13. (Test_Bank)South-Western_Federal_Taxation_2018_Comprehensive,_41st_Edition.zip
  14. A Concise Introduction to Logic 13th Edition - Patrick J. Hurley.pdf
  15. quot_they_say_i_say_quot_the.pdf
  16. [Thomas_M._Connolly,_Carolyn_E._Begg]_Database_Sys(BookZZ.org).pdf
  17. [Richard_A_Brealey,_Stewart_C_Myers,_Richard_Breal(BookSee.org).pdf
  18. [MichaelMcLaughlin]_Oracle_Database_11g_PLSQL(BookFi).pdf
  19. [Henri_A_Favre,_Warren_H_Powell,_International_Uni(BookZZ.org).pdf
  20. [Frank_L_Pedrotti,_Leno_M_Pedrotti,_Leno_S_Pedrott(BookSee.org).pdf
  21. [Avigail_Eisenberg,_Jeff_Spinner-Halev]_Minorities(BookFi).pdf
  22. (Test Bank)Statistical Techniques in Business and Economics 16th Edition by Lind.zip
  23. (Test Bank)Business Law Text and Cases 14th Edition by Clarkson.zip
  24. (Solution Manual)South-Western Federal Taxation 2018 Comprehensive, 41st Edition.zip
  25. (Solution Manual)Advanced Accounting 13th Edition by Joe Ben Hoyle.zip
  26. (Macmillan Small Business Series) Paul Burns, Jim Dewhurst (eds.)-Small Business and Entrepreneurship-Macmillan Education UK (1996).pdf
  27. embedded_formative_assessment.mobi
  28. Essentials of Organizational Behavior 14th Edition by Stephen P. Robbins - TB.zip
  29. (6th Edition) James F. Kurose, Keith W. Ross-Computer Networking_ A Top-Down Approach-Pearson (2012).pdf
  30. esreverdoom_xanth.epub
  31. Dennis D. Wackerly, William Mendenhall, Richard L. Scheaffer Mathematical Statistics with Applications.split_2.zip
  32. Dennis D. Wackerly, William Mendenhall, Richard L. Scheaffer Mathematical Statistics with Applications.split.zip
  33. Career Counseling Holism, Diversity, and Strengths 4th Edition - Norman C. Gysbers.azw3
  34. Changing Season A Father, A Daughter, A Family Farm- David_Mas_Masumoto.pdf
  35. Dead.mobi
  36. DEADish.mobi
  37. deadish.azw
  38. Changing Season A Father, A Daughter, A Family Farm - David Mas Masumoto.azw3
  39. (5th Edition) Thomas M. Connolly, Carolyn E. Begg-Database Systems_ A Practical Approach to Design, Implementation and Management-Addison-Wesley (2009).pdf
  40. DEAD-ish-.mobi
  41. changes_in_the_land_indians_co.epub
  42. dead_as_a_doorpost_dead_ish_bo.mobi
  43. dead_and_hellbent_dead_ish_boo.epub
  44. Brave-New-World.epub
  45. Bellairs, John - [Lewis Barnavelt 2] - The Figure in the Shadows .epub
  46. Anthony, Piers - [Xanth 39] - Five Portraits (2014, Open Road Integrated Media, 9781497662902).epub
  47. Bellairs, John & Strickland, Brad - [Lewis Barnavelt 4] - The Ghost in the Mirror (1994, Penguin Group US, 978-1-101-65970-0).epub
  48. Auditing The Art and Science of Assurance Engagements 13E - CDN - Arens - TB.zip
  49. Bellairs, John & Strickland, Brad - [Lewis Barnavelt 9] - The Tower at the End of the World - (2001, Penguin Group US, 978-1-440-61831-4).mobi
  50. Anthony, Piers - [Xanth 38] - Board Stiff (2013, Premier Digital Publishing, 978-1-62467-085-5,978-1-62467-086-2).mobi
  51. Analysis of Funds Received By Political Parties During Elections_English.pdf
  52. Bellairs, John & Strickland, Brad - [Lewis Barnavelt 5] - The Vengeance of the Witch-Finder - (1995, Penguin Group US, 0-14-037511-2,978-1-101-65977-9).epub
  53. basin_and_range.epub
  54. Bellairs, John & Strickland, Brad - [Lewis Barnavelt 7] - The Specter from the Magician's Museum (2004, Penguin Group US, 9781101659755).epub
  55. Bellairs, John - [Lewis Barnavelt 10] - The Whistle, the Grave, and the Ghost (2010, Penguin Group US, 978-0-803-72622-2).epub
  56. an introduction to bioethics.epub
  57. Advanced Accounting, 6th Edition by Debra C. Jeter.zip
  58. Advanced Accounting, 6th Edition by Debra C. Jeter 题库.zip
  59. aircraft command techniques ga.azw
  60. A Textbook of Engineering Physics M N Avadhanulu, PG Kshirsagar.pdf
  61. a practical guide to ethics li.pdf
  62. _technically_dead_dead_ish_boo.azw
  63. A Dialogue on Personal Identity.pdf
  64. _psilo_nekph.mobi
  65. _imminently_dead_dead_ish_book.mobi
  66. How Not to Die by Michael Greger, Gene Stone.epub
  67. The How Not to Die Cookbook by Michael Greger, Gene Stone.pdf
  68. How We Got to Now Six Innovations That Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson.epub
  69. C++ How to Program (Early Objects Version) 10th ediiton.pdf
  70. C How to Program (8th Edition) by Paul Deitel .pdf
  71. C++ How to Program (Early Objects Version) 10th ediiton-1-200.pdf
  72. College Algebra - James Stewart.pdf
  73. College Algebra with Modeling & Visualization 6th Edition.pdf
  74. Introduction to Managerial Accounting 7th Edition by Brewer.pdf
  75. Beginning Essentials in early childhood 3rd edition.pdf
  76. Beginning Algebra by Richard 8th Edition.pdf
  77. geol.pdf
  78. Ronald E. Walpole, Raymond H. Myers, Sharon L. Myers, Keying E. Ye - Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists (9th Edition) -Prentice Hall (2011).pdf
  79. Social Marketing Changing Behaviors for Good .mobi
  80. Social Marketing_ Changing Behaviors for Good - Lee, Nancy R. & Kotler, Philip A_.pdf
  81. The American Promise, Value Edition, Volume 2 7th Edition.pdf
  82. Human Sexuality Today (8th Edition).pdf
  83. Horngren's Financial & Managerial Accounting 6th Edition. Miller-Nobles.pdf
  84. Ethics+For+Life+7th+Edition-+Judith+Boss.azw3
  85. Essentials+of+the+U.S.+Health+Care+System+-+Leiyu+Shi.azw3
  86. Essentials of the U.S. Health Care System - Leiyu Shi.pdf
  87. Ethics For Life 7th Edition- Judith Boss.pdf
  88. Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers 6th Edition.pdf
  89. Foundations of Economics 8th Edition by Robin Bade.pdf
  90. Varney’s Midwifery 6th Edition.pdf
  91. Principles of Economics Second 2nd Edition by Lee Coppock (1).pdf
  92. Understanding Art 11E- Lois Fichner-Rathus.pdf
  93. Financial Accounting 8th edition.pdf
  94. Ethics in Accounting A Decision-Making Approach - Gordon Klein .pdf
  95. Brunner and Suddarth's Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing, 14th Edition.pdf
  96. The Enduring Democracy 5th Edition.pdf
  97. The Law of Healthcare Administration, Eighth Edition.pdf
  98. Forensic and Investigative Accounting (8th Edition).pdf
  99. Integrated Science 7th Edition by Bill Tillery.pdf
  100. Douglas E. Ensley, J. Winston Crawley - Discrete Mathematics_ Mathematical Reasoning and Proof with Puzzles, Patterns, and Games (2006, Wiley).pdf
  101. Cross-Cultural Management Essential Concepts 4th Edition.pdf
  102. Engineering Mechanics Statics 4e by Andrew Pytel.pdf
  103. Protozoa and Human Disease - Mark Wiser.pdf
  104. Electric Circuits, 11th Edition [James W. Nilsson].pdf
  105. Organic Chemistry 9th Edition by John E. McMurry.pdf
  106. everyday_writer_with_exercises.pdf
  107. Biochemistry 9th Edition by Mary K. Campbell.pdf
  108. Stern's Introductory Plant Biology 14th Edition,- James Bidlack.pdf
  109. MGMT 9.pdf
  110. Business_Law.pdf
  111. Business 12th edition.pdf
  112. Sports in Society_ Issues and Controversies - Jay Coakley.pdf
  113. Statistics for People Who (Thin - Neil J. Salkind.pdf
  114. Fundamentals of Corporate Finance, 4e - Robert Parrino.pdf
  115. Essentials of Investments 10e- Zvi Bodie.pdf
  116. Deviant Behavior (11th Edition) - Alex D Thio.pdf
  117. Douglas C Giancoli - Physics for scientists & engineers (2009, Prentice Hall ).pdf
  118. studyguide_to_accompany_neil.azw
  119. worksite_health_promotion.mobi
  120. Plato - Phaedo . v2.pdf
  121. discourse_on_method_and_medita.azw
  122. discourse_on_method_and_medita.mobi
  123. (Solution Manual)Principles of Modern Chemistry , 8th Edition David W. Oxtoby.zip
  124. Business and Society Ethics, Sustainability & Stakeholder 10th.pdf
  125. Principles of Modern Chemistry, 8th Edition by David W. Oxtoby.pdf
  126. Framework for Marketing Management 6th Edition by Philip Kotler.pdf
  127. Macroeconomics 7th Edition by R. Glenn Hubbard; Anthony Patrick O';Brien.pdf
  128. Effective+Instructional+Strategies+From+Theory+to+Practice+4th++-+Moore,+Kenneth+D.+(Dean).epub
  129. Effective Instructional Strategies From Theory to Practice 4th - Moore, Kenneth D. (Dean).pdf
  130. Sociology Matters, 6th edition - Schaefer, Richard T_.pdf
  131. Economics (7th Edition) by R. Glenn Hubbard.pdf
  132. [Linda_S_Cordell,_Maxine_McBrinn]_Archaeology_of_t.pdf
  133. The Pursuit of_Happiness.pdf
  134. [Issues in Southwest Archaeology] Chip Colwell-Chanthaphonh - Living Histories_ Native Americans and Southwestern Archaeology (2010, AltaMira Press).pdf
  135. hands_on_ethical_hacking_and_n.pdf
  136. Essentials of Managing Human Resources 6th Canadian Edition [Eileen Stewart].pdf
  137. Business Ethics Concepts and Cases 8th Edition by Manuel G. Velasquez.pdf
  138. The Bedford Handbook - Hacker. Diana.pdf
  139. The Bedford Handbook 10th - Hacker. Diana.azw3
  140. Kenneth Rosen - Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications (2018, McGraw-Hill Higher Education).pdf
  141. The Basic Practice of Statistics 8th Edition by David Moore.pdf
  142. The+Social+Animal+12th+Edition-+Elliot+Aronson.azw3
  143. The Social Animal 12th Edition- Elliot Aronson.pdf
  144. Social Psychology 10th Edition by Saul Kassin.pdf
  145. World History in Brief. Major Patterns of Change and Continuity, Combined Volume, Penguin Academic Edition (8th Edition).pdf
  146. MKTG 12th Edition by Charles W. Lamb.pdf
  147. [Herman_E._Daly,_Joshua_Farley]_Ecological_Economi.pdf
  148. Marketing 10th Canadian Edition by Frederick Crane and Roger A.Kerin.pdf
  149. Leadership Theory, Application, and Skill Development 6th.pdf
  150. [Judith_Scott,_John_C._Boylan,_Christin_M._Jungers(b-ok.cc).pdf
  151. badtherapy_master_therapists.pdf
  152. [Rise_B._Axelrod,_Charles_R._Cooper]_The_Concise_S(b-ok.cc).pdf
  153. How Children Develop (Canadian Edition) 5th Edition.pdf
  154. Marketing (Irwin Marketing) 6th Edition by Dhruv Grewal.pdf
  155. Macroeconomics 2nd Edition by Daron Acemoglu.pdf
  156. Inquiry into Life_ Relevancy Up - Sylvia Mader.pdf
  157. Social Psychology 10th Editionby Elliot Aronson.pdf
  158. Alvin A. Arens, Randal J. Elder, Mark S. Beasley - Auditing and Assurance Services-Pearson (2013).pdf
  159. Martin Ives, Terry K. Patton, Suesan R. Patton - Introduction to Governmental and Not-for-Profit Accounting-Pearson (2012).pdf
  160. Interpersonal Relationships Professional Communication Skills fo.pdf
  161. Handbook of Occupational Health Psychology 2E.pdf
  162. They say I say 4th edition.pdf
  163. Accounting Information Systems - Marshall B. Romney.pdf
  164. The Color of Justice Race Ethnicity and Crime in America 6.pdf
  165. Sur le vif Niveau intermediaire World Languages 6th Edition.pdf
  166. An Introduction to Evaluation.pdf
  167. Interpersonal Relationships.pdf
  168. gold Leading and Managing in Canadian Nursing.pdf
  169. Hands-On Microsoft Windows Server 2016 2nd edition.pdf
  170. (Shelly Cashman Series) Harry J. Rosenblatt - Systems Analysis and Design-Cengage Learning (2013).pdf
  171. Fundamentals of Information Sys - Ralph Stair.pdf
  172. Strategies and Tactics of Behavioral Research.pdf
  173. Linear Systems and Signals 3rd Edition by B.P. Lathi.pdf
  174. Introduction to the Practice of Statistics 9th - David S. Moore.pdf
  175. Introduction+to+the+Practice+of+Statistics+9th+-+David+S.+Moore.azw3
  176. Fraud Examination 6th Edition by W. Steve Albrecht.pdf
  177. Personal Finance 13th.pdf
  178. Management of Information Security 5th Edition by Michael.pdf
  179. Contemporary Project Management 4th Edition by Timothy Kloppenborg.pdf
  180. Rodolfo F. Acuna - Occupied America_ A History of Chicanos-Pearson (2014).pdf
  181. Russell C. Hibbeler - Engineering Mechanics_ Statics-Pearson (2015).pdf
  182. the_college_panda_39_s_act_ess.azw
  183. Managerial Accounting 5th Edition by Karen W. Braun.pdf
  184. electric_machines_principles_a.pdf
  185. Curt M. White - Data Communications and Computer Networks A Business User's Approach-CENGAGE Learning· (2015).pdf
  186. Marshall T. Poe - The Russian Moment in World History (2003, Princeton University Press).pdf
  187. Richard E. Jones and Kristin H. Lopez (Auth.) - Human Reproductive Biology-Academic Press (2014).pdf
  188. evolutionsecond_edition.pdf
  189. Gary Chartrand, Albert D. Polimeni, Ping Zhang - Mathematical Proofs. A Transition to Advanced Mathematics-Pearson (2018).pdf
  190. The Elements of Moral Philosophy 8th edition.pdf
  191. Principles of Macroeconomics, 7th Canadian Edition by Mankiw.pdf
  192. (Dover Books on Mathematics) Stanley J. Farlow - An Introduction to Differential Equations and Their Applications-Dover Publications (2006).epub
  193. Criminology: The Core 7th Edition - Larry J. Siegel.pdf
  194. Social Psychology 13th Edition - David Myers.pdf
  195. The Real World (Sixth Edition) - Kerry Ferris.pdf
  196. Electronics for Electricians - Stephen L. Herman.pdf
  197. Essentials of Economics 10 edition- Bradley Schiller-1-100.pdf
  198. The Business Writer';s Handbook .pdf
  199. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics.pdf
  200. Introduction+to+Quantum+Mechani+-+David+J.+Griffiths.azw3
  201. Web Development and Design Foundations with HTML5 9th Edition by Terry Felke-Morris .pdf
  202. Web Development and Design Foundations with HTML5 9th Edition by Terry Felke-Morris .epub
  203. Family Assessment Handbook_ An Introductory Practice Guide to Family Assessment - Barbara Thomlison.pdf
  204. Understanding Interpersonal Communication Making Choices in.pdf
  205. Marketing 14th Edition by Roger Kerin.pdf
  206. Preclinical Speech Science Anatomy, Physiology, Acoustics 3rd Edition.pdf
  207. John Polking, Al Boggess, David Arnold - Differential Equations with Boundary Value Problems (2005, Pearson).pdf
  208. Organic Chemistry Principles and Mechanisms Joel Karty 2nd edition.pdf
  209. College Physics 2nd Edition by Roger Freedman.pdf
  210. College Physics 2nd Edition by Roger Freedman.mobi
  211. Multilevel Analysis-An Introduction Basic and Advanced Multilevel Model.pdf
  212. Sensation and Perception 5th Edition [Jeremy M. Wolfe].pdf
  213. Fundamentals of Phonetics A Practical Guide for Students 4th Edition by Larry H. Small.pdf
  214. Language Development From Theory to Practice 3rd Edition by Khara L Pence Turnbull.pdf
  215. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management (5th Edition) .pdf
  216. American Government and Politics Today, Brief Edition 9th edition.pdf
  217. A First Course in Differential Equations with Modeling Applications 11th Edition.pdf
  218. Frederick Douglass, Introduction by Robert B. Stepto - Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave Written by Himself -Harvard University Press (2009).pdf
  219. Frederick Douglass - The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass_ An American Slave (Webster's Thesaurus Edition) (2006).pdf
  220. The Language of Medicine, 11th Edition.pdf
  221. Voices of Freedom A Documentary History (Fifth Edition) (Vol. 1) 5th- Eric Foner.pdf
  222. Pharmacology for Women’s Health 2nd - Mary C. Brucker.pdf
  223. M Advertising 3rd Edition- William Arens.pdf
  224. Principles of Incident Response and Disaste by Michael E. Whitman.pdf
  225. Shelly Cashman Series Microsoft Office 365 & Office 2016 Introductory.pdf
  226. Environmental Science 14th Edition by William Cunningham (.pdf
  227. Managing Workplace Diversity and Inclusion A Psychological Perspective 1st.pdf
  228. Converging Media 6th Edition by John V. Pavlik.pdf
  229. Frequently Prescribed Medications 3rd.pdf
  230. Elementary Linear Algebra 8th Edition.pdf
  231. Accounting Information Systems (MindTap Course List) 10th Edition- James A. Hall.pdf
  232. (The Pearson series in economics_ Always learning) Krugman, Paul R._ Melitz, Marc J._ Obstfeld, Maurice-International economics _ theory and policy-Pearson (2018).pdf
  233. Carole Wade, Carol Tavris, Maryanne Garry-Invitation to Psychology-Pearson (2014).pdf
  234. Clark Spencer Larsen-Essentials of Physical Anthropology-W. W. Norton & Co (2015).pdf
  235. apple_pro_training_series_logi.azw
  236. Consumer Behavior 7th Edition - Wayne D. Hoyer (1).pdf
  237. Survey of Accounting (Accounting I) 8th Edition- Carl S. Warren.pdf
  238. Supply Chain Management A Logistics Perspective 10th - John J. Coyle & C. John Langley & Robert A. Novack & Brian Gibson.pdf
  239. Allyn J. Washington-Basic Technical Mathematics with Calculus-Pearson (2013).pdf
  240. Computing Essentials 2019 27th Edition- Timothy O';Leary.pdf
  241. Elementary Statistics - William Navidi.pdf
  242. Psychology,Fourth 4th Canadian Edition Schacter .pdf
  243. Randall D. Knight-Physics for Scientists and Engineers_ A Strategic Approach-Pearson (2016).djvu
  244. Randall D. Knight-Physics for Scientists and Engineers_ A Strategic Approach with Modern Physics-Pearson (2016).pdf
  245. Worlds Together, Worlds Apart A History of the World Concise Edition.pdf
  246. Calculus Early Transcendentals (3rd Edition).pdf
  247. Introduction to Probability 1st .pdf
  248. Donald R. LaTorre, John W. Kenelly, Iris B. Reed, Laurel R. Carpenter, Cynthia R. Harris-Calculus Concepts_ An Informal Approach to the Mathematics of Change, 5th Edition -Brooks Cole _ Cengage (20.pdf
  249. rereading_america_cultural_con.pdf
  250. devianceand_social_control_a.epub
  251. Workbook for Radiologic Science - Stewart C. Bushong.pdf
  252. Workbook for Radiologic Science - Stewart C. Bushong.azw3
  253. Microelectronic Circuits_ Analysis and Design (Activase NEW titles from Engineering!) - Muhammad H. Rashid.pdf
  254. (WCB Geology) Charles (Carlos) Plummer, Diane Carlson, Lisa Hammersley-Physical geology-McGraw-Hill (2016).pdf
  255. latin_america_and_the_caribbea.pdf
  256. Economics of Managerial Decisions The 1st by Roger Blair.pdf
  257. Modern Advanced Accounting in Canada 8th edition.pdf
  258. Modern Advanced Accounting in Canada 8th edition-1-100.pdf
  259. Essentials of MIS,13th Edition by Kenneth C. Laudon.pdf
  260. Principles of Managerial Finance 15th by Chad J. Zutter Edition.pdf
  261. Accounting for Governmental & Nonprofit Entities 18e by Jacqueline Reck.pdf
  262. Essentials of Life-Span Develop - John Santrock.pdf
  263. Out Of Many_ A History of the A - John Mack Faragher.pdf
  264. International Trade 3rd Edition by Robert C. Feenstra.pdf
  265. Steel Design 6th Edition by William T. Segui.pdf
  266. softwaresystems_architecture.epub
  267. Politics in Europe.pdf
  268. Politics in Europe.mobi
  269. Politics in Europe.epub
  270. Using Assessment Results for Ca - Debra S. Osborn.pdf
  271. John N. Gardner, Betsy O. Barefoot-Your College Experience_ Strategies for Success-Bedford _ St. Martin’s (2015) (1).pdf
  272. Your College Experience 13E - John Gardner.pdf
  273. Your College Experience - John Gardner.azw3
  274. The Cosmic Perspective Fundamentals 2nd Edition - Jeffrey O. Bennett.pdf
  275. Physiology of Sport and Exercise 6th Edition.pdf
  276. Supply Chain Logistics Management, 4th Edition by Bowersox, Donald.pdf
  277. Essentials of Economics 8th Edition by Mankiw N. Gregory.pdf
  278. Physiology of Sport and Exercise .pdf
  279. Delmar's Standard Textbook of Electricity 6th Edition (1).pdf
  280. Linda Null and Julia Lobur-The Essentials of Computer Organization and Architecture-Jones & Bartlett.pdf
  281. Robert Hisrich, Michael Peters, Dean Shepherd-Entrepreneurship-McGraw-Hill Education (2016).pdf
  282. Reynolds, George Walter_ Stair, Ralph M.-Principles of information systems-Cengage Learning (2018).pdf
  283. Michael Sullivan-College Algebra-Pearson (2015).pdf
  284. Milady’s Standard Esthetics_ Advanced - Milady.001.pdf
  285. A Guide to SQL 9th .pdf
  286. Career Counseling A Holistic Approach 9th Edition by Vernon G. Zunker.pdf
  287. A Brief History of Japanese Civ - Conrad Schirokauer.pdf
  288. Principles%C2%A0of%C2%A0Auditing%C2%A0Other%C2%A0Assurance+Services%C2%A021th(1).pdf
  289. A Brief History of Chinese and Japanese Civilizations 4th Edition.pdf
  290. The American Political System Core Third Edition 3rd Edition.pdf
  291. James Stewart-Essential Calculus_ Early Transcendentals-Brooks Cole (2012).pdf
  292. milady_s_standard_esthetics_ad.pdf
  293. Spence L., Insel A., Friedberg S.-Elementary Linear Algebra. A Matrix Approach-Pearson (2014).pdf
  294. Corporate Financial Accounting 14- Carl S. Warren.pdf
  295. Concepts in Bioinformatics and Genomics by Jamil Momand.pdf
  296. Essentials of Geology 13th Edition - Frederick K. Lutgens.pdf
  297. The Everyday Writer with Exercises with 2016 MLA Update 6th Edition.pdf
  298. Psychology 4e- Daniel L. Schater.pdf
  299. Gardner';s Art through the Ages A Global History, Volume I 15e 15th .pdf
  300. Economic Issues and Policy 6th- Jacqueline Murray Brux (1).pdf
submitted by TailExpert to CollegeTextbook [link] [comments]

Top Futurology News - For the week of Jan 31, 2020

Top Futurology News - For the week of Jan 31, 2020

https://preview.redd.it/2vfzj3xf7fe41.png?width=1916&format=png&auto=webp&s=d86af073a267ce84c27f1133917719545f7210f1
We hope you enjoy this week's update!
Links to all original sources below the super long image showcasing this weeks' stories.
submitted by _FuturistechInfo to IsaacArthur [link] [comments]

Can a person use quantum computers to break bitcoin?

Newbie here. Not very familiar with bitcoin as of now, but really interested in this topic.
I know this has probably been asked a dozen times already. But I’m not talking about using quantum computers to break the encryptions behind bitcoin - it’s impossible to do so with current technology, and by the time quantum computers can break bitcoin encryption, bitcoin would likely have upgraded to become quantum-resistant, anyway.
Rather, I am talking about using quantum computers to mine bitcoin. If quantum computers can theoretically outperform classical ones, shouldn’t they be able to mine bitcoin at a significantly faster rate than usual? In addition, is it possible to do so with current quantum computer technology (like, for example, some guy uses IBM’s 53-qubit computer or Google’s 72-qubit Sycamore chip to do the job)?
Of note, I know that bitcoin adjusts its mining difficulty every 2016 blocks or something, but I am thinking whether quantum computers can successfully zip-mine all those 2016 blocks before the difficulty is adjusted?
submitted by Palpatine88888 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Google says it is on track to definitively prove it has a quantum computer in a few months’ time

Google says it is on track to definitively prove it has a quantum computer in a few months’ time submitted by rammsteinPL to ethtrader [link] [comments]

This is why its so important for cryptocurrencies to be quantum resistant now... 17-qubit chips are a massive step forward for quantum computing. Nexus is a cryptocurrency thinking for the future.

This is why its so important for cryptocurrencies to be quantum resistant now... 17-qubit chips are a massive step forward for quantum computing. Nexus is a cryptocurrency thinking for the future. submitted by mikecasey to nexusearth [link] [comments]

If all of the Bitcoin network spent its hashpower generating new Bitcoin wallets, how long would it take to find an address with funds on it?

Let's assume the hash rate grows at a predefined rate based on the previous years' growth. And the number of Bitcoin wallets are expected to grow at the same rate as well. How many years would it take to find a collision?
submitted by hybridsole to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

What is a better investment, Bitcoin or Ethereum?

Ethereum.
Before I explain why, I need you to understand something. Bitcoin and Ethereum are at two completely different stages within their potential. They also do not share the exact same mission; therefore, you do have to understand their differences to form an opinion about which one has the biggest use.
Before we look at the coins in detail, let's start with the potential ROI (100% = 2x Original Investment).
Bitcoin’s current market cap is $193,165,354,468 in order for you to make 100% this number would need to double to just under $400 Billion.
Ethereum’s current market cap is $44,715,990,083 , roughly 1/5th of Bitcoins. In order for you to make 100%, the price would need to increase to just under $90 Billion. - This is obviously more probable.
This will not serve as the only variable in making a decision, we now need to break down their uses and differences.
Bitcoin
What is Bitcoin?
A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without the burdens of going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted party is still required to prevent double-spending. We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as honest nodes control the most CPU power on the network, they can generate the longest chain and outpace any attackers. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcasted on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.
Peer-to-Peer (P2P): is a technical way of saying computers (peers) that are connected together via the internet.
Timestamps: are a sequence of characters that identify exactly when a certain event occurred, giving the exact time and date.
Hashing: is the process of compacting large quantities of data into smaller fixed sizes.
Proof-of-work: is the verification that the individual peer created the said hash
Nodes: are computers that are connected to the blockchain
Bitcoin is a first generation cryptocurrency, that was created in 2009 with the intention to become the currency of the internet.
Its Applications
Safe Haven
Being that billions of people are under the control of a broke economy or volatile dictatorship, Bitcoin is beginning to become a medium in which people within underdeveloped countries feel as a more secure place to store their value.
Remittances
The current operation costs roughly $600B annually, all at the expense of separated families. Bitcoin can now serve as a tool that operates the exact same way and only costs 1/10th of the price.
A transaction on the Bitcoin network also processes faster therefore giving the people a strong reason to make the switch.
Currency
Bitcoin is recognized as an asset, but can also be identified as an efficient currency in which people can buy and exchange with. With this being an application of Bitcoin, as the market continues to decrease in volatility, the use for Bitcoin will increase within businesses and everyday people that transact on a daily basis.
These are just a few, but for the sake of answer length, let’s move onto some of the scalability issues with Bitcoin that hinder my decision of choosing Bitcoin over Ethereum.
Bothering Issues with Bitcoin
Energy
A study from Digiconomist found that each transaction on the Bitcoin blockchain uses 236 KWh worth of electricity, this amount is enough to power 8 U.S households for an entire day.
Scalability
Energy consumption will hinder the scalability issues of Bitcoin, however the other issue that arises with POW mining is that with the increase in cost associated with mining BTC it is less economical to mine Bitcoin. This would limit the distributed nodes (miners) globally and allow a larger percentage of control to the dominant mining pools / farms.
This would lead to a more centralized blockchain, where they can change the rules of BTC as they please.
The supply of Bitcoin is finite, capped at 21 million. Eventually (currently predicted for 2140) Bitcoin's supply will run out. Once this happens, miners will no longer receive rewards for completing blocks but instead will be given fees. The fees will be drastically high in relative terms, and people will stop using the blockchain.
Also, if miners decide that this is uneconomical for them to process the transactions and use their computing power elsewhere the speed of transactions for Bitcoin will drastically slow down, rendering one of the fundamental values of a Bitcoin (speed) useless.
Blue chip Companies
This is more so for all cryptocurrencies, but Bitcoin in particular. It’s not a matter of if but a matter of when a blue-chip company such as Facebook, Amazon or Google decides to implement their own cryptocurrency.
Another possibility is a potential ‘world coin’ which global governments will all agree on using, this may seem unrealistic but it is definitely not impossible and many benefits would arise from having such a currency.
Quantum Computing
Bitcoin is said to be Quantum resistant, on the whitepaper it mentions that:
‘To compensate for increasing hardware speed and varying interest in running nodes over time, the proof-of-work difficulty is determined by a moving average targeting an average number of blocks per hour. If they're generated too fast, the difficulty increases.’
This may seem quantum resistant but it is important to understand that the difficulty is changed every 10 minutes and this is more than enough time for QC to mine all of Bitcoin’s remaining coins.
Bitcoin Bubble
The last point of this section is to recognize that the Bitcoin bubble could pop loud enough to crash the market. Due to a whole lot of hype, and even more speculative and uneducated buyers, Bitcoin could face a peak in which a simple spark
Ethereum
What is Ethereum?
Ethereum is an open source platform with the mission to build and inspire next-generation decentralized applications. In other words, the applications being built on the Ethereum network would have no middle men. Users are able to interact safely with social and financial systems to transact peer to peer, therefore opening a new realm of opportunity within decentralized development on specifically the exchange of value.
Like the Bitcoin network exchanges Bitcoin, applications within the Ethereum network would exchange ETHER. Therefore, making the Ethereum network have its own digital currency or, cryptocurrency that these decentralized applications would run on.
On the Ethereum network, developers are able to build these decentralized applications simply, within this seemingly complicated new technology. Think of it as Shopify or Volusion, these are centralized networks in which users/developers can build e-commerce stores more efficiently and cost effectively.
Ethereum is similar in this aspect, the network was essentially created to assist and fuel the growth of decentralized blockchain applications within its network.
Smart Contracts
Now, what Ethereum is based on, is a thing called “Smart Contracts”
Developers are extremely excited about this tool, a smart contract is similar to how it sounds, it’s a digital contract that self-executes… Think of it as a virtual vending machine.
A smart contract is a digital contract between two people in which the technology or tool handles the management, performance, enforcement and payment of the agreement. The smart contract has its own digital bank account of ETHER and settles once the product is received or the service is completed therefore greatly improving the efficiency of data tracking, payment processing and user friendliness of each decentralized application.
Let’s dive into an example
Music
The first age of the internet brought quite a bit of disruption to the music industry… Idk if you knew, but if you we’re a songwriter 25 years ago and produced a hit song that got a million singles you would acquire royalties of up to $50,000. Now if you were to produce a hit song that gets a million streams you don’t get $50,000, you get $45… Enough to cover the first round at the bar.
In result, musicians are now finding other ways to produce revenue with their music. One being the utilization of a blockchain ecosystem like Ethereum. Music applications are now being built for musicians to reclaim their content, smart contracts are being implemented into the music itself, therefore the music protects the intellectual property rights of the artist.
You want to listen to the song? It’s free… or maybe a few micro pennies to download. You want to put the song in your video or movie? Make it your ringtone? These each cost a different price and presented at the point of purchase would be its underlying IP rights for the use of that piece of music.
Musicians are absolutely hyped about this because now, the song becomes a business. It’s out there on this platform marketing itself, protecting the rights of the author and because the song has a payment system; in the sense of a bank account, all of the money then flows back to the artist, and they control the industry rather than these powerful intermediaries.
This concept could apply not only to just songwriters but any creator of content, from art, to inventions, to scientific discoveries or the work from independent journalists. There are endless industries in which people do not gain fair compensation in which the underlying technology of Ethereum could benefit in a big way.
Other examples:
· A smart contract can be created to pay a worker for every hour they work, they log their hours on the blockchain and then after verification the funds are instantly transferred to them
· Buying goods internationally can be tracked and verified – reducing fraud.
· Property buying can be facilitated through the contract
· Every industry that has a contract in place will be able to use the blockchain of Ethereum
It is also worth noting that Ethereum is also a lot quicker than Bitcoin, average block time being 15 seconds for Ethereum opposed to 10 minutes for Bitcoin.
Personally, I am invested into both. If I HAD to choose, like I said it would be Ethereum simply because of where it is now in comparison to its potential as well as its very transparent, direct, opportunistic mission towards the hosting of decentralized blockchain applications.
submitted by alifkhalil469 to BtcNewz [link] [comments]

Are Proof of Work Blockchains like Bitcoin Cryptographically Safe Against Light-Based or Quantum Hardware?

Basically, I found on another thread here that leaked research from the Skynet project that is developing some type of Light-based hardware for blockchains aside from their blockchain chips and IoT blockchain network. Didn't see very good responses about any Photonic-based cryptography so wanted to try asking again.
My questions:
  1. People usually talk about Quantum Proof but the Field of Photonics seems to be possibly more advanced than quantum processors. Since Light-Based hardware is millions of times faster than conventional hardware, would Photonic ASICs be good at breaking public-key cryptography?
  2. Is Ethereum or Bitcoin resistant to Photonic Proof of Work or Quantum Proof of Work given their current consensus models?
  3. If so, what would be the ways to prevent it from happening?
Paper: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1iBc9RJyuJm6cTt7XlIZM7sYXA4j7Frcm/view
Project Reference: http://skynet.co/
"One of the possible research areas and implementations of Skynet is a single-node photonic RC design with the Inception core. This would enable the Skynet Core to use minimal power while processing millions of times faster than conventional hardware. One of the major problems in today’s computer science is the development of new hardware that could accelerate machine learning techniques. That hardware should be inherently fast, energy-efficient, and address information exchange bottlenecks present in now ubiquitous Von Neumann architecture. We will focus specifically on the so-called single-node photonic RC, which promises additional benefit of high-speed information processing and a solution to the high-degree network connectivity problem, based on complex nonlinear delay dynamics."
Although it's really tempting please don't shill projects. There's got to be a couple cryptographers in this subreddit.
submitted by Richie2420 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Quantum1Net A Cryptographic Platform.

Features

Quantum1Net comes in to create a new encryption system.
Quantum1net. com also showed that Quantum computers are more efficient than traditional computers. Quantum computers are mechanical quantum counters, such as data processing and communications. It usually means doing a very long job in a matter of minutes or hours and is the best device for years to come. The process data (text or binary) is encrypted using the encryption key combination.
Quantum1net; random encryption time and unique random number decryption system. Its aim is to provide faster and safer storage and transmission of data. Protect your important information from hackers.

Mission

The Quantum1Net mission Innovation is what drives the Quantum1Net team. They are determined to create an incredibly powerful technology, making it accessible, relevant and ultimately personal. Quantum1Net's mission is to create technology that enables and empowers. They have designed a product so secure that you don't need to worry about data security now or in the future. They are introducing an unparalleled level of technical innovation, combined with a system design that connects with the user to provide critical security, ease of use and peace of mind. Each year, Quantum1Net plans to reinvest about 20% of its revenue in research and development of new network security solutions to improve transmission options for people around the world who suffer from insecure data transmission. This will make Quantum1Net a significantly research-intensive company.

Protocol

The laboratory prototype of the Quantum Random Number Generator from Quantum1Net, which has been under development since 2014, is based on a 1-bit optical device, which uses four photon detectors and a time to digital (TDC) converter to generate sets of perfect random numbers with time stamps. The quantum device consists of a source of interlaced photons and linear optical elements, which establishes the quantum system in the desired state. Two configurations have been developed to generate sets of 4 and 6 elements respectively. The result of TDC is the temporary queue, from which sets of unique random numbers or encryption keys can be requested, creating a real-time, on-demand encryption and decryption system.

Roadmap

Quantum1Net expects to continue development during the first half of 2018.
Hiring additional developers in March 2018 should allow us to finalize the initial QEKG development the following month, supporting a limited Quantum1Net implementation in May.
The final design for the hardware-based Quantum Key Generation should be completed in July, followed by the signing of manufacturing partners by the end of summer 2018.
Autumn 2018 is when we expect to start running towards a global Quantum1Net release in January 2019.
We expect the alpha version of the Quantum1Net file transmission platform initially during September, and a beta version in November 2018.
The release version is likely to be completed the following month, paving the way for the global Quantum1Net publication targeted for Q1 2019.

Token

First sale token: Silver symbol
February 2018 - February 2018
Ethereum-base
convertible to gold token at 20% discount
Sale of the cap of 15 million euro
Objectives
Supports the change to the new office to centralize development
Recruitment of new developers at the July 2018 meeting Limited Quantum1Net Quantum1Net release
Second sale token: gold chip (closed)
July 2018
based on Bitcoin, including QEK
silver token investors get priority token investors get
18 million maximum sales of
Objectives
Offer a proof of concept of Our QEK, this token's quantum enclosed encrypted token
Supports development of the hardware and software transmission platform
Token (open) - January 2019
Bitcoin-based, QE enabled
Silver Token investors who converted in July 2018 the sale can participate in the 5% discount - Silver Token investors who converted in July 2018 the sale can participate in the 5% discount
Sale capped at 200 million euros
Bounty0x ID: chemist32
submitted by kadirbaysal to Crypto_General [link] [comments]

I'm writing a series about blockchain tech and possible future security risks. This is the third part of the series introducing Quantum resistant blockchains.

Part 1 and part 2 will give you usefull basic blockchain knowledge that is not explained in this part.
Part 1 here
Part 2 here
Quantum resistant blockchains explained.
- How would quantum computers pose a threat to blockchain?
- Expectations in the field of quantum computer development.
- Quantum resistant blockchains
- Why is it easier to change cryptography for centralized systems such as banks and websites than for blockchain?
- Conclusion
The fact that whatever is registered on a blockchain can’t be tampered with is one of the great reasons for the success of blockchain. Looking ahead, awareness is growing in the blockchain ecosystem that quantum computers might cause the need for some changes in the cryptography that is used by blockchains to prevent hackers from forging transactions.
How would quantum computers pose a threat to blockchain?
First, let’s get a misconception out of the way. When talking about the risk quantum computers could pose for blockchain, some people think about the risk of quantum computers out-hashing classical computers. This, however, is not expected to pose a real threat when the time comes.
This paper explains why: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.10377.pdf "In this section, we investigate the advantage a quantum computer would have in performing the hashcash PoW used by Bitcoin. Our findings can be summarized as follows: Using Grover search, a quantum computer can perform the hashcash PoW by performing quadratically fewer hashes than is needed by a classical computer. However, the extreme speed of current specialized ASIC hardware for performing the hashcash PoW, coupled with much slower projected gate speeds for current quantum architectures, essentially negates this quadratic speedup, at the current difficulty level, giving quantum computers no advantage. Future improvements to quantum technology allowing gate speeds up to 100GHz could allow quantum computers to solve the PoW about 100 times faster than current technology.
However, such a development is unlikely in the next decade, at which point classical hardware may be much faster, and quantum technology might be so widespread that no single quantum enabled agent could dominate the PoW problem."
The real point of vulnerability is this: attacks on signatures wherein the private key is derived from the public key. That means that if someone has your public key, they can also calculate your private key, which is unthinkable using even today’s most powerful classical computers. So in the days of quantum computers, the public-private keypair will be the weak link. Quantum computers have the potential to perform specific kinds of calculations significantly faster than any normal computer. Besides that, quantum computers can run algorithms that take fewer steps to get to an outcome, taking advantage of quantum phenomena like quantum entanglement and quantum superposition. So quantum computers can run these certain algorithms that could be used to make calculations that can crack cryptography used today. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elliptic-curve_cryptography#Quantum_computing_attacks and https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/598.pdf
Most blockchains use Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) cryptography. Using a quantum computer, Shor's algorithm can be used to break ECDSA. (See for reference: https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0301141 and pdf: https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0301141.pdf ) Meaning: they can derive the private key from the public key. So if they got your public key (and a quantum computer), then they got your private key and they can create a transaction and empty your wallet.
RSA has the same vulnerability while RSA will need a stronger quantum computer to be broken than ECDSA.
At this point in time, it is already possible to run Shor’s algorithm on a quantum computer. However, the amount of qubits available right now makes its application limited. But it has been proven to work, we have exited the era of pure theory and entered the era of practical applications:
So far Shor's algorithm has the most potential, but new algorithms might appear which are more efficient. Algorithms are another area of development that makes progress and pushes quantum computer progress forward. A new algorithm called Variational Quantum Factoring is being developed and it looks quite promising. " The advantage of this new approach is that it is much less sensitive to error, does not require massive error correction, and consumes far fewer resources than would be needed with Shor’s algorithm. As such, it may be more amenable for use with the current NISQ (Noisy Intermediate Scale Quantum) computers that will be available in the near and medium term." https://quantumcomputingreport.com/news/zapata-develops-potential-alternative-to-shors-factoring-algorithm-for-nisq-quantum-computers/
It is however still in development, and only works for 18 binary bits at the time of this writing, but it shows new developments that could mean that, rather than a speedup in quantum computing development posing the most imminent threat to RSA and ECDSA, a speedup in the mathematical developments could be even more consequential. More info on VQF here: https://arxiv.org/abs/1808.08927
It all comes down to this: when your public key is visible, which is always necessary to make transactions, you are at some point in the future vulnerable for quantum attacks. (This also goes for BTC, which uses the hash of the public key as an address, but more on that in the following articles.) If you would have keypairs based on post quantum cryptography, you would not have to worry about that since in that case not even a quantum computer could derive your private key from your public key.
The conclusion is that future blockchains should be quantum resistant, using post-quantum cryptography. It’s very important to realize that post quantum cryptography is not just adding some extra characters to standard signature schemes. It’s the mathematical concept that makes it quantum resistant. to become quantm resistant, the algorithm needs to be changed. “The problem with currently popular algorithms is that their security relies on one of three hard mathematical problems: the integer factorization problem, the discrete logarithm problem or the elliptic-curve discrete logarithm problem. All of these problems can be easily solved on a sufficiently powerful quantum computer running Shor's algorithm. Even though current, publicly known, experimental quantum computers lack processing power to break any real cryptographic algorithm, many cryptographers are designing new algorithms to prepare for a time when quantum computing becomes a threat.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-quantum_cryptography
Expectations in the field of quantum computer development.
To give you an idea what the expectations of quantum computer development are in the field (Take note of the fact that the type and error rate of the qubits is not specified in the article. It is not said these will be enough to break ECDSA or RSA, neither is it said these will not be enough. What these articles do show, is that a huge speed up in development is expected.):
When will ECDSA be at risk? Estimates are only estimates, there are several to be found so it's hard to really tell.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has made a very thourough report on the development of quantum computing. The report came out in the end of 2018. They brought together a group of scientists of over 70 people from different interconnecting fields in quantum computing who, as a group, have come up with a close to 200 pages report on the development, funding, implications and upcoming challenges for quantum computing development. But, even though this report is one of the most thourough up to date, it doesn't make an estimate on when the risk for ECDSA or RSA would occur. They acknowledge this is quite impossible due to the fact there are a lot of unknowns and due to the fact that they have to base any findings only on publicly available information, obviously excluding any non available advancements from commercial companies and national efforts. So if this group of specialized scientists can’t make an estimate, who can make that assessment? Is there any credible source to make an accurate prediction?
The conclusion at this point of time can only be that we do not know the answer to the big question "when".
Now if we don't have an answer to the question "when", then why act? The answer is simple. If we’re talking about security, most take certainty over uncertainty. To answer the question when the threat materializes, we need to guess. Whether you guess soon, or you guess not for the next three decades, both are guesses. Going for certain means you'd have to plan for the worst, hope for the best. No matter how sceptical you are, having some sort of a plan ready is a responsible thing to do. Obviously not if you're just running a blog about knitting. But for systems that carry a lot of important, private and valuable information, planning starts today. The NAS describes it quite well. What they lack in guessing, they make up in advice. They have a very clear advice:
"Even if a quantum computer that can decrypt current cryptographic ciphers is more than a decade off, the hazard of such a machine is high enough—and the time frame for transitioning to a new security protocol is sufficiently long and uncertain—that prioritization of the development, standardization, and deployment of post-quantum cryptography is critical for minimizing the chance of a potential security and privacy disaster."
Another organization that looks ahead is the National Security Agency (NSA) They have made a threat assessment in 2015. In August 2015, NSA announced that it is planning to transition "in the not too distant future" (statement of 2015) to a new cipher suite that is resistant to quantum attacks. "Unfortunately, the growth of elliptic curve use has bumped up against the fact of continued progress in the research on quantum computing, necessitating a re-evaluation of our cryptographic strategy." NSA advised: "For those partners and vendors that have not yet made the transition to Suite B algorithms, we recommend not making a significant expenditure to do so at this point but instead to prepare for the upcoming quantum resistant algorithm transition.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NSA_Suite_B_Cryptography#cite_note-nsa-suite-b-1
What these organizations both advice is to start taking action. They don't say "implement this type of quantum resistant cryptography now". They don't say when at all. As said before, the "when" question is one that is a hard one to specify. It depends on the system you have, the value of the data, the consequences of postponing a security upgrade. Like I said before: you just run a blog, or a bank or a cryptocurrency? It's an individual risk assesment that's different for every organization and system. Assesments do need to be made now though. What time frame should organisationds think about when changing cryptography? How long would it take to go from the current level of security to fully quantum resistant security? What changes does it require to handle bigger signatures and is it possible to use certain types of cryptography that require to keep state? Do your users need to act, or can al work be done behind the user interface? These are important questions that one should start asking. I will elaborate on these challenges in the next articles.
Besides the unsnswered question on "when", the question on what type of quantum resistant cryptography to use is unanswered too. This also depends on the type of system you use. The NSA and NAS both point to NIST as the authority on developments and standardization of quantum resistant cryptography. NIST is running a competition right now that should end up in one or more standards for quantum resistant cryptography. The NIST competition handles criteria that should filter out a type of quantum resistant cryptography that is feasable for a wide range of systems. This takes time though. There are some new algorithms submitted and assessing the new and the more well known ones must be done thouroughly. They intend to wrap things up around 2022 - 2024. From a blockchain perspective it is important to notice that a specific type of quantum resistant cryptography is excluded from the NIST competition: Stateful Hash-Based Signatures. (LMS and XMSS) This is not because these are no good. In fact they are excelent and XMSS is accepted to be provable quantum resistant. It's due to the fact that implementations will need to be able to securely deal with the requirement to keep state. And this is not a given for most systems.
At this moment NIST intends to approve both LMS and XMSS for a specific group of applications that can deal with the statefull properties. The only loose end at this point is an advice for which applications LMS and XMSS will be adviced and for what applications it is discouraged. These questions will be answered in the beginning of april this year: https://csrc.nist.gov/news/2019/stateful-hbs-request-for-public-comments This means that quite likely LMS and XMSS will be the first type of standardized quantum resistant cryptography ever. To give a small hint: keeping state, is pretty much a naturally added property of blockchain.
Quantum resistant blockchains
“Quantum resistant” is only used to describe networks and cryptography that are secure against any attack by a quantum computer of any size in the sense that there is no algorithm known that makes it possible for a quantum computer to break the applied cryptography and thus that system.
Also, to determine if a project is fully quantum resistant, you would need to take in account not only how a separate element that is implemented in that blockchain is quantum resistant, but also the way it is implemented. As with any type of security check, there should be no backdoors, in which case your blockchain would be just a cardboard box with bulletproof glass windows. Sounds obvious, but since this is kind of new territory, there are still some misconceptions. What is considered safe now, might not be safe in the age of quantum computers. I will address some of these in the following chapters, but first I will elaborate a bit about the special vulnerability of blockchain compared to centralized systems.
Why is it easier to change cryptography for centralized systems such as banks and websites than for blockchain?
Developers of a centralized system can decide from one day to the other that they make changes and update the system without the need for consensus from the nodes. They are in charge, and they can dictate the future of the system. But a decentralized blockchain will need to reach consensus amongst the nodes to update. Meaning that the majority of the nodes will need to upgrade and thus force the blockchain to only have the new signatures to be valid. We can’t have the old signature scheme to be valid besides the new quantum resistant signature scheme. Because that would mean that the blockchain would still allow the use of vulnerable, old public- and private keys and thus the old vulnerable signatures for transactions. So at least the majority of the nodes need to upgrade to make sure that blocks which are constructed using the old rules and thus the old vulnerable signature scheme, are rejected by the network. This will eventually result in a fully upgraded network which only accepts the new post quantum signature scheme in transactions. So, consensus is needed. The most well-known example of how that can be a slow process is Bitcoin’s need to scale. Even though everybody agrees on the need for a certain result, reaching consensus amongst the community on how to get to that result is a slow and political process. Going quantum resistant will be no different, and since it will cause lesser performance due to bigger signatures and it will need hardware upgrades quite likely it will be postponed rather than be done fast and smooth due to lack of consensus. And because there are several quantum resistant signature schemes to choose from, agreement an automatic given. The discussion will be which one to use, and how and when to implement it. The need for consensus is exclusively a problem decentralized systems like blockchain will face.
Another issue for decentralized systems that change their signature scheme, is that users of decentralized blockchains will have to manually transfe migrate their coins/ tokens to a quantum safe address and that way decouple their old private key and activate a new quantum resistant private key that is part of an upgraded quantum resistant network. Users of centralized networks, on the other hand, do not need to do much, since it would be taken care of by their centralized managed system. As you know, for example, if you forget your password of your online bank account, or some website, they can always send you a link, or secret question, or in the worst case they can send you mail by post to your house address and you would be back in business. With the decentralized systems, there is no centralized entity who has your data. It is you who has this data, and only you. So in the centralized system there is a central entity who has access to all the data including all the private accessing data, and therefore this entity can pull all the strings. It can all be done behind your user interface, and you probably wouldn’t notice a thing.
And a third issue will be the lost addresses. Since no one but you has access to your funds, your funds will become inaccessible once you lose your private key. From that point, an address is lost, and the funds on that address can never be moved. So after an upgrade, those funds will never be moved to a quantum resistant address, and thus will always be vulnerable to a quantum hack.
To summarize: banks and websites are centralized systems, they will face challenges, but decentralized systems like blockchain will face some extra challenges that won't apply for centralized systems.
All issues specific for blockchain and not for banks or websites or any other centralized system.
Conclusion
Bitcoin and all currently running traditional cryptocurrencies are not excluded from this problem. In fact, it will be central to ensuring their continued existence over the coming decades. All cryptocurrencies will need to change their signature schemes in the future. When is the big guess here. I want to leave that for another discussion. There are enough certain specifics we can discuss right now on the subject of quantum resistant blockchains and the challenges that existing blockchains will face when they need to transfer. This won’t be an easy transfer. There are some huge challenges to overcome and this will not be done overnight. I will get to this in the next few articles.
Part 1, what makes blockchain reliable?
Part 2, The two most important mathematical concepts in blockchain.
Part 4A, The advantages of quantum resistance from genesis block, A
Part 4B, The advantages of quantum resistance from genesis block, B
Part 5, Why BTC will be vulnerable sooner than expected.
submitted by QRCollector to CryptoTechnology [link] [comments]

Google's Quantum Processor May Achieve Quantum Supremacy in Months Due to 'Doubly Exponential' Growth in Power

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 89%. (I'm a bot)
In a new report in Quanta Magazine by Kevin Hartnett, Hartmut Neven, the director of Google's Quantum Artificial Intelligence Lab, reveals that the growth in power with each new improvement to Google's best quantum processor is unlike anything found in nature.
"Then in January, they ran the same test on an improved version of the quantum chip. This time they had to use a powerful desktop computer to simulate the result. By February, there were no longer any classical computers in the building that could simulate their quantum counterparts. The researchers had to request time on Google's enormous server network to do that."Somewhere in February I had to make calls to say, 'Hey, we need more quota,'" Nevens told Hartnett.
In December 2019, only six months from now, the power of Google's quantum computing processor might be anywhere from 24096 times to 28192 times as powerful as it was at the start of the year.
According to Neven's telling, by February-only three months after they began their tests, so 3 on our list-, there were no longer any classical computers in the building that could recreate the results of Google's quantum computer's calculations, which a laptop had been doing just two months earlier.
Neven said that as a result, Google is preparing to reach quantum supremacy-the point where quantum computers start to outperform supercomputers simulating quantum algorithms-in a only a matter of months, not years: "We often say we think we will achieve it in 2019.
Now, it's looking like we may even see the real deal by Christmas, and there's no reason to think that the power of quantum computers won't continue to increase even further once either Google or IBM or even someone else achieves true quantum supremacy.
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: computer#1 Quantum#2 Google#3 classical#4 Year#5
Post found in /worldnews, /QuantumComputing and /Bitcoin.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]

Decred Journal — June 2018

Note: You can read this on GitHub, Medium or old Reddit to see the 207 links.

Development

The biggest announcement of the month was the new kind of decentralized exchange proposed by @jy-p of Company 0. The Community Discussions section considers the stakeholders' response.
dcrd: Peer management and connectivity improvements. Some work for improved sighash algo. A new optimization that gives 3-4x faster serving of headers, which is great for SPV. This was another step towards multipeer parallel downloads – check this issue for a clear overview of progress and planned work for next months (and some engineering delight). As usual, codebase cleanup, improvements to error handling, test infrastructure and test coverage.
Decrediton: work towards watching only wallets, lots of bugfixes and visual design improvements. Preliminary work to integrate SPV has begun.
Politeia is live on testnet! Useful links: announcement, introduction, command line voting example, example proposal with some votes, mini-guide how to compose a proposal.
Trezor: Decred appeared in the firmware update and on Trezor website, currently for testnet only. Next steps are mainnet support and integration in wallets. For the progress of Decrediton support you can track this meta issue.
dcrdata: Continued work on Insight API support, see this meta issue for progress overview. It is important for integrations due to its popularity. Ongoing work to add charts. A big database change to improve sorting on the Address page was merged and bumped version to 3.0. Work to visualize agenda voting continues.
Ticket splitting: 11-way ticket split from last month has voted (transaction).
Ethereum support in atomicswap is progressing and welcomes more eyeballs.
decred.org: revamped Press page with dozens of added articles, and a shiny new Roadmap page.
decredinfo.com: a new Decred dashboard by lte13. Reddit announcement here.
Dev activity stats for June: 245 active PRs, 184 master commits, 25,973 added and 13,575 deleted lines spread across 8 repositories. Contributions came from 2 to 10 developers per repository. (chart)

Network

Hashrate: growth continues, the month started at 15 and ended at 44 PH/s with some wild 30% swings on the way. The peak was 53.9 PH/s.
F2Pool was the leader varying between 36% and 59% hashrate, followed by coinmine.pl holding between 18% and 29%. In response to concerns about its hashrate share, F2Pool made a statement that they will consider measures like rising the fees to prevent growing to 51%.
Staking: 30-day average ticket price is 94.7 DCR (+3.4). The price was steadily rising from 90.7 to 95.8 peaking at 98.1. Locked DCR grew from 3.68 to 3.81 million DCR, the highest value was 3.83 million corresponding to 47.87% of supply (+0.7% from previous peak).
Nodes: there are 240 public listening and 115 normal nodes per dcred.eu. Version distribution: 57% on v1.2.0 (+12%), 25% on v1.1.2 (-13%), 14% on v1.1.0 (-1%). Note: the reported count of non-listening nodes has dropped significantly due to data reset at decred.eu. It will take some time before the crawler collects more data. On top of that, there is no way to exactly count non-listening nodes. To illustrate, an alternative data source, charts.dcr.farm showed 690 reachable nodes on Jul 1.
Extraordinary event: 247361 and 247362 were two nearly full blocks. Normally blocks are 10-20 KiB, but these blocks were 374 KiB (max is 384 KiB).

ASICs

Update from Obelisk: shipping is expected in first half of July and there is non-zero chance to meet hashrate target.
Another Chinese ASIC spotted on the web: Flying Fish D18 with 340 GH/s at 180 W costing 2,200 CNY (~340 USD). (asicok.comtranslated, also on asicminervalue)
dcrASIC team posted a farewell letter. Despite having an awesome 16 nm chip design, they decided to stop the project citing the saturated mining ecosystem and low profitability for their potential customers.

Integrations

bepool.org is a new mining pool spotted on dcred.eu.
Exchange integrations:
Two OTC trading desks are now shown on decred.org exchanges page.
BitPro payment gateway added Decred and posted on Reddit. Notably, it is fully functional without javascript or cookies and does not ask for name or email, among other features.
Guarda Wallet integrated Decred. Currently only in their web wallet, but more may come in future. Notable feature is "DCR purchase with a bank card". See more details in their post or ask their representative on Reddit. Important: do your best to understand the security model before using any wallet software.

Adoption

Merchants:
BlueYard Capital announced investment in Decred and the intent to be long term supporters and to actively participate in the network's governance. In an overview post they stressed core values of the project:
There are a few other remarkable characteristics that are a testament to the DNA of the team behind Decred: there was no sale of DCR to investors, no venture funding, and no payment to exchanges to be listed – underscoring that the Decred team and contributors are all about doing the right thing for long term (as manifested in their constitution for the project).
The most encouraging thing we can see is both the quality and quantity of high calibre developers flocking to the project, in addition to a vibrant community attaching their identity to the project.
The company will be hosting an event in Berlin, see Events below.
Arbitrade is now mining Decred.

Events

Attended:
Upcoming:

Media

stakey.club: a new website by @mm:
Hey guys! I'd like to share with you my latest adventure: Stakey Club, hosted at stakey.club, is a website dedicated to Decred. I posted a few articles in Brazilian Portuguese and in English. I also translated to Portuguese some posts from the Decred Blog. I hope you like it! (slack)
@morphymore translated Placeholder's Decred Investment Thesis and Richard Red's write-up on Politeia to Chinese, while @DZ translated Decred Roadmap 2018 to Italian and Russian, and A New Kind of DEX to Italian and Russian.
Second iteration of Chinese ratings released. Compared to the first issue, Decred dropped from 26 to 29 while Bitcoin fell from 13 to 17. We (the authors) restrain ourselves commenting on this one.
Videos:
Audio:
Featured articles:
Articles:

Community Discussions

Community stats: Twitter followers 40,209 (+1,091), Reddit subscribers 8,410 (+243), Slack users 5,830 (+172), GitHub 392 stars and 918 forks of dcrd repository.
An update on our communication systems:
Jake Yocom-Piatt did an AMA on CryptoTechnology, a forum for serious crypto tech discussion. Some topics covered were Decred attack cost and resistance, voting policies, smart contracts, SPV security, DAO and DPoS.
A new kind of DEX was the subject of an extensive discussion in #general, #random, #trading channels as well as Reddit. New channel #thedex was created and attracted more than 100 people.
A frequent and fair question is how the DEX would benefit Decred. @lukebp has put it well:
Projects like these help Decred attract talent. Typically, the people that are the best at what they do aren’t driven solely by money. They want to work on interesting projects that they believe in with other talented individuals. Launching a DEX that has no trading fees, no requirement to buy a 3rd party token (including Decred), and that cuts out all middlemen is a clear demonstration of the ethos that Decred was founded on. It helps us get our name out there and attract the type of people that believe in the same mission that we do. (slack)
Another concern that it will slow down other projects was addressed by @davecgh:
The intent is for an external team to take up the mantle and build it, so it won't have any bearing on the current c0 roadmap. The important thing to keep in mind is that the goal of Decred is to have a bunch of independent teams on working on different things. (slack)
A chat about Decred fork resistance started on Twitter and continued in #trading. Community members continue to discuss the finer points of Decred's hybrid system, bringing new users up to speed and answering their questions. The key takeaway from this chat is that the Decred chain is impossible to advance without votes, and to get around that the forker needs to change the protocol in a way that would make it clearly not Decred.
"Against community governance" article was discussed on Reddit and #governance.
"The Downside of Democracy (and What it Means for Blockchain Governance)" was another article arguing against on-chain governance, discussed here.
Reddit recap: mining rig shops discussion; how centralized is Politeia; controversial debate on photos of models that yielded useful discussion on our marketing approach; analysis of a drop in number of transactions; concerns regarding project bus factor, removing central authorities, advertising and full node count – received detailed responses; an argument by insette for maximizing aggregate tx fees; coordinating network upgrades; a new "Why Decred?" thread; a question about quantum resistance with a detailed answer and a recap of current status of quantum resistant algorithms.
Chats recap: Programmatic Proof-of-Work (ProgPoW) discussion; possible hashrate of Blake-256 miners is at least ~30% higher than SHA-256d; how Decred is not vulnerable to SPV leaf/node attack.

Markets

DCR opened the month at ~$93, reached monthly high of $110, gradually dropped to the low of $58 and closed at $67. In BTC terms it was 0.0125 -> 0.0150 -> 0.0098 -> 0.0105. The downturn coincided with a global decline across the whole crypto market.
In the middle of the month Decred was noticed to be #1 in onchainfx "% down from ATH" chart and on this chart by @CoinzTrader. Towards the end of the month it dropped to #3.

Relevant External

Obelisk announced Launchpad service. The idea is to work with coin developers to design a custom, ASIC-friendly PoW algorithm together with a first batch of ASICs and distribute them among the community.
Equihash-based ZenCash was hit by a double spend attack that led to a loss of $450,000 by the exchange which was targeted.
Almost one year after collecting funds, Tezos announced a surprise identification procedure to claim tokens (non-javascript version).
A hacker broke into Syscoin's GitHub account and implanted malware stealing passwords and private keys into Windows binaries. This is a painful reminder for everybody to verify binaries after download.
Circle announced new asset listing framework for Poloniex. Relevant to recent discussions of exchange listing bribery:
Please note: we will not accept any kind of payment to list an asset.
Bithumb got hacked with a $30 m loss.
Zcash organized Zcon0, an event in Canada that focused on privacy tech and governance. An interesting insight from Keynote Panel on governance: "There is no such thing as on-chain governance".
Microsoft acquired GitHub. There was some debate about whether it is a reason to look into alternative solutions like GitLab right now. It is always a good idea to have a local copy of Decred source code, just in case.
Status update from @sumiflow on correcting DCR supply on various sites:
To begin with, none of the below sites were showing the correct supply or market cap for Decred but we've made some progress. coingecko.com, coinlib.io, cryptocompare.com, livecoinwatch.com, worldcoinindex.com - corrected! cryptoindex.co, onchainfx.com - awaiting fix coinmarketcap.com - refused to fix because devs have coins too? (slack)

About This Issue

This is the third issue of Decred Journal after April and May.
Most information from third parties is relayed directly from source after a minimal sanity check. The authors of Decred Journal have no ability to verify all claims. Please beware of scams and do your own research.
The new public Matrix logs look promising and we hope to transition from Slack links to Matrix links. In the meantime, the way to read Slack links is explained in the previous issue.
As usual, any feedback is appreciated: please comment on Reddit, GitHub or #writers_room. Contributions are welcome too, anything from initial collection to final review to translations.
Credits (Slack names, alphabetical order): bee and Richard-Red. Special thanks to @Haon for bringing May 2018 issue to medium.
submitted by jet_user to decred [link] [comments]

Is there a mechanism in place to stop someone with malicious intent from taking all the possible bitcoin addresses?

What is stopping someone from putting a massive amount of computing power at just claiming available addresses until they are depleted in an effort to sabotage bitcoin? I know there are a lot of them, but this would seem like a big worry if you want to use this technology for decades.
submitted by devlspawn to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Q&A: Bitcoin and Quantum Computing  Are Quantum Computers a Threat to Bitcoin ? Bitcoin Price Falls on Panic over Quantum Computers, Bakkt Failure, & Miner Exodus Quantum Computers and Threat to Crypto - Google Quantum Supremacy - Hindi Quantum computing hacking blockchain  bitcoin quantum computing  quantum computing explained hindi

If a quantum computer did manage to mine all 2016 blocks, the network would simply adjust the difficulty, bottlenecking Sycamore's further attempts. Still, in reality, the likelihood of bitcoin network being able to produce a difficulty setting of this level is improbable. Quantum Computers Could 'Break' Bitcoin Google recently came with a ground-breaking announcement in their article that revealed it has achieved quantum supremacy. To elaborate, the U.S. tech giant claimed that their quantum computer, named Sycamore, became successful in solving a complex mathematical problem in 200 seconds beating the current IBM-made fastest supercomputer in the world (named Summit) that would take 10,000 years to North Carolina-based conglomerate Honeywell has raised the stakes in the quantum computing race, announcing that its newest machine has reached a quantum volume of 64 —making it twice as powerful as quantum computers operated by rivals IBM and Google. First teased in March this year, Honeywell’s new quantum computer is “twice as powerful as the next alternative in the industry,” the To date, about 300,000 quantum experiments have been run by developers on IBM’s quantum cloud. This is only a start. IBM is working to build a computer with a power of at least 50 qubits in the years to come. 2. Google (Alphabet) As it stands, Google’s quantum power surpasses that of IBM. Anytime there’s an advancement in Quantum Computing, like Intel’s 49 qubit chip at last year’s 2018 CES show, or this years CES show with IBM’s 20 qubit commercial quantum computer

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Bitcoin Q&A: "Quantum supremacy"

Google says it has achieved "quantum supremacy." What does this mean? Is Bitcoin's cryptography now broken? Keep calm, carry on. This question is from the third session of MOOC 12, which took ... New quantum model for btc predicts bullrun in 2022 and 2,000 bottom in 2021. Countries china japan cbdc. Retail bitcoin investors getting shaken out bitcoin shakeout.. Subscribe for daily crypto videos : https://goo.gl/zm1G9x Bitcoin will be the new store of value and crypto will be the new technology evolution and I want to be a part of that trough this channel ... Why Did Bitcoin Drop $1700? Price Drop Speculation, Fed Pump, Bakkt Launch & BTC Whales - Duration: 46:58. The Modern Investor 32,072 views Is quantum computing a threat to bitcoin? We head to IBM Think 2019 to discuss whether quantum computers pose a threat to cryptocurrencies and blockchain cryptography. The answer was a resounding ...

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