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Best Ways to Passively Earn Free Bitcoin & Crypto in 2020

Here are my best ways to earn free crypto passively in 2020 with the least amount of effort. Hopefully these 5 methods are helpful to you.

Earning Crypto for Things You Do Already
1) Brave Browser (BAT)
For me, one of the biggest no brainers out there for earning free cryptocurrency is the Brave Browser and their BAT token. This new browser looks and feels like the Chrome browser, but is better in so many ways…
AD BLOCKERS: Most websites and ads include software that track your every move as you browse the web. Brave Shields block these incoming ads and trackers to allow a more private, uninterrupted browsing experience.
SPEED: One perk of blocking those ads and trackers is that they can no longer slow down your page uploads. Brave Browser can load sites up to six times faster than Chrome, Safari and Firefox.
PRIVACY: Most browsers have a “private mode,” but this only hides your history from others using your browser. Brave’s Tor feature not only hides history, but it also masks your location from the sites you visit by routing your browsing through several servers before it reaches your destination. These connections are encrypted to increase anonymity.
REWARDS: So now on to the part that earns you free cryptocurrency. While the Brave browser blocks unwanted ads, it gives you the option to earn rewards (BAT Tokens) by opting into their privacy-respecting ads. Get paid to view small, non-intrusive ads as you browse the internet. This feature is completely optional as the browser gives you the option to allow anywhere from 5 ads per hour (max) down to no ads at all if you would prefer to forgo earning BAT tokens and want to just enjoy an ad free browsing experience.
If you are worried to move away from the Chrome browser because you rely on some of the Chrome extensions, not to worry. Brave browser should maintain support for all of your Chrome extensions.
Brave browser is a great way to passively earn cryptocurrency for doing something you already do. In addition, if you are willing to put in just a little more work, you can earn more BAT by signing up for their Brave Creators program. This will give you a referral link that you can pass along to friends and family to earn additional BAT tokens for each person that downloads the browser. Referral bonuses differ depending on what country the new user is from, for example new users from the United States are currently worth $7.50 of BAT each. If you would like to get started with the Brave Browser and earning BAT tokens, you can use the link below to download.
Brave Download Page

2) Presearch (PRE)
A natural addition to the Brave browser is Presearch. While you are getting paid to browse the internet with Brave, you might as well get paid for your internet searches as well. Presearch is a new internet search engine that pays you for each search in the form of their PRE token. And just like the Brave browser, one of the best perks, besides getting paid to do what you already do, is that you are not sacrificing quality to get it. In their own words, “WE ARE BUILDING A NEXT-GENERATION SEARCH ENGINE, POWERED BY THE COMMUNITY.”
Worried you won’t get as good of search results as Google? Nothing to worry about there as you can simply choose Google as your default provider within Presearch and you will be directed to Google’s results when you enter your search. In fact, you can direct your search to any number of sites (96 as of this writing) for any given search. They make this easy to switch back and forth as there is a list of your favorite sites directly under the search bar. Some examples of the more popular sites include Amazon, Youtube, Facebook, Reddit, ESPN and Netflix.
If you are so inclined, in addition to getting paid for your internet searches, Presearch also allows you to use your purchased or earned PRE tokens to buy keyword ads. In their words, “Keyword Staking enables token holders to commit or ‘stake’ their PRE tokens against specific words and multi-word terms. With Presearch Keyword Staking you choose a keyword (ex. ‘Bitcoin’) and then stake PRE tokens that you’ve purchased or earned against that term. You can then create an ad that you link to the website of your choice.”
To begin earning PRE for all your internet searches, use the link below.
Presearch Sign Up

3) Crypto.com (CRO & MCO)
Crypto.com is on a mission to be the leader in cryptocurrency adoption to the masses so they are being aggressive with their customer incentives. Another great way to earn crypto for doing what you already do is via their Debit Card cash-back. Crypto.com has great eye-catching, metal crypto reward credit cards that pay you cash back for all of your day to day purchases anywhere VISA is accepted. Depending on which level of card you get, these credit cards reward 1% to 5% cashback (paid in their MCO token) on all spending along with other great benefits like free ATM & international withdrawals, 100% cashback on Spotify & Netflix subscriptions and airport lounge access. You can find the full details for each card on their website, but below is a breakdown of the benefits on their three lowest entry level cards. Note that some of these benefits are reduced if you are not staking their MCO token.
MIDNIGHT BLUE (Plastic Card)
Cash Back Reward: 1%
Monthly Free ATM Withdrawal Limit: $200
Required MCO Stake: None (Free)

RUBY STEEL (Metal)
Cash Back Reward: 2%
100% cashback on a standard Spotify subscription (up to $12.99)
Monthly Free ATM Withdrawal Limit: $400
Required MCO Stake: 50

JADE GREEN & ROYAL INDIGO (Metal)
Cash Back Reward: 3%
100% cashback on a standard Spotify subscription (up to $12.99)
100% cashback on a standard Netflix subscription (up to $12.99)
Monthly Free ATM Withdrawal Limit: $800
Airport Lounge Access
Required MCO Stake: 500

PLEASE NOTE: Cards are currently available in the US, Singapore and Europe. And hopefully very soon will be available in Asia Pacific and Canada as well.
In order to get your hands on one of these cards you will need to open a Crypto.com account if you don’t already have one. There is good news if you don’t already have one, as new sign ups can get $50 worth of MCO tokens free by using the link and promo code I have posted below. Please note that the $50 of MCO tokens will remain locked until you deposit & stake at least 50 MCO tokens toward the sign up of the particular card you are interested in.
In case you are unfamiliar with the term “staked”, this simply means that those coins will be locked up for whatever length of time that card requires. It is important to note that you are not paying or losing those coins as you will be free to sell the staked MCO at the end of holding period and continue to earn crypto cash-back from your card. Or you can leave your MCO coins staked and continue to earn interest on them. For example, if you hold a Jade Green card which requires a 500 MCO stake, they are currently offering 6% interest on those coins which is paid out in more MCO.
In summary, Crypto.com cards are a great way to earn free crypto on your everyday purchases along with other great perks like free (100% cashback) Netflix and Spotify subscriptions. In addition, a small layer of comfort in signing up for one of these cards, is that Crypto.com is one of the largest, most trusted crypto exchanges out there right now. In fact, if you are also looking for an exchange to get started with purchasing crypto assets, your Crypto.com account would be great for that as well. To claim your Crypto.com debit rewards card you can use the link below. If you do not currently have a Crypto.com account and would like to get the $50 Sign Up Bonus use the link along with the promo code.
Crypto.com Sign Up (Get $50 Bonus)
PROMO CODE: gapena3dq4
Earn Free Crypto Instantly for a Little Bit of Your Time

4) Coinbase Earn
In an effort to educate its users and to try and simplify the sometimes complex world of cryptocurrency, Coinbase has put together the Coinbase Earn program. They have partnered with some of the biggest blockchain projects out there to offer you free crypto for watching short educational videos about the coin you are getting rewarded in. These videos are normally about 2-3 minutes long and pay you $2 to $4 per video, with each project having about 4 or 5 total videos.
In order to collect your reward, you normally need to successfully answer a multiple choice question at the end of the video which is usually fairly simple. If you get the question wrong don’t worry, they will allow you to watch the video over again until you get the question correct. Once you have answered the question correctly you will immediately receive your tokens that you are free to sell or exchange for another token of your choice if you would like.
Coinbase is changing their active offerings for these videos all the time and usually have about 4 or 5 projects available at any given time. In addition, some of the projects will not be immediately available and will require you to join a waitlist. Then, once the offering is available to you, they will email you with a link to the videos. Below is the current list of available offerings as of this writing and I will do my best to keep these updated. However, once you have a Coinbase account you can log in and check for new projects on your own. Speaking of which, a Coinbase account is required before you can watch the videos so if you do not already have one you can use the link below to sign up. Using this link will also get you $10 of free Bitcoin as a sign up bonus (Note that to get the free $10 you must buy or sell $100 worth of crypto within 180 days of signing up).
Coinbase Sign Up ($10 Bonus)

Current Coinbase Earn Offerings:
1. EOS – 5 Videos / $2 each / $10 Total
Watch EOS Videos
2. Orchid (OXT)- 3 Videos / $4 each / $12 Total
Watch OXT Videos
3. Stellar Lumens (XLM) - 5 Videos / $2 each / $10
Watch XLM Videos
*** Each of these offerings also provides the opportunity to earn an additional $40 each for referring them to friends and family. ($10 per referral / Max of 4 each)

5) EarnCrypto.com
If you have some free time on your hands and are willing to put in a little effort, EarnCrypto.com is another good option for earning free Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies. On this site you will get paid free crypto for completing tasks like watching videos, playing games and taking surveys.
One nice thing about this site is that once you have completed your task you will be given your free crypto instantly and they offer a very wide selection of coins to pick from. I think right now they offer over 80 different cryptocurrencies for rewards and you get to choose which coin you want to get paid in. This makes for a great way to gain some exposure to lower market cap coins that are often not listed on the major exchanges. In addition, they are adding new coins all the time, so you can send them a request to add your favorite crypto if they don’t already offer it. Use the link below to open an account and start earning the cryptocurrency of your choice now.
EarnCrypto.com Sign Up
submitted by CaliBum16 to passiveincome [link] [comments]

Best Ways to Passively Earn Free Bitcoin & Crypto in 2020

Here are my best ways to earn free crypto passively in 2020 with the least amount of effort. Hopefully these 5 methods are helpful to you.
Earning Crypto for Things You Do Already
1) Brave Browser (BAT)
For me, one of the biggest no brainers out there for earning free cryptocurrency is the Brave Browser and their BAT token. This new browser looks and feels like the Chrome browser, but is better in so many ways…
AD BLOCKERS: Most websites and ads include software that track your every move as you browse the web. Brave Shields block these incoming ads and trackers to allow a more private, uninterrupted browsing experience.
SPEED: One perk of blocking those ads and trackers is that they can no longer slow down your page uploads. Brave Browser can load sites up to six times faster than Chrome, Safari and Firefox.
PRIVACY: Most browsers have a “private mode,” but this only hides your history from others using your browser. Brave’s Tor feature not only hides history, but it also masks your location from the sites you visit by routing your browsing through several servers before it reaches your destination. These connections are encrypted to increase anonymity.
REWARDS: So now on to the part that earns you free cryptocurrency. While the Brave browser blocks unwanted ads, it gives you the option to earn rewards (BAT Tokens) by opting into their privacy-respecting ads. Get paid to view small, non-intrusive ads as you browse the internet. This feature is completely optional as the browser gives you the option to allow anywhere from 5 ads per hour (max) down to no ads at all if you would prefer to forgo earning BAT tokens and want to just enjoy an ad free browsing experience.
If you are worried to move away from the Chrome browser because you rely on some of the Chrome extensions, not to worry. Brave browser should maintain support for all of your Chrome extensions.
Brave browser is a great way to passively earn cryptocurrency for doing something you already do. In addition, if you are willing to put in just a little more work, you can earn more BAT by signing up for their Brave Creators program. This will give you a referral link that you can pass along to friends and family to earn additional BAT tokens for each person that downloads the browser. Referral bonuses differ depending on what country the new user is from, for example new users from the United States are currently worth $7.50 of BAT each. If you would like to get started with the Brave Browser and earning BAT tokens, you can use the link below to download.
Brave Download Page

2) Presearch (PRE)
A natural addition to the Brave browser is Presearch. While you are getting paid to browse the internet with Brave, you might as well get paid for your internet searches as well. Presearch is a new internet search engine that pays you for each search in the form of their PRE token. And just like the Brave browser, one of the best perks, besides getting paid to do what you already do, is that you are not sacrificing quality to get it. In their own words, “WE ARE BUILDING A NEXT-GENERATION SEARCH ENGINE, POWERED BY THE COMMUNITY.”
Worried you won’t get as good of search results as Google? Nothing to worry about there as you can simply choose Google as your default provider within Presearch and you will be directed to Google’s results when you enter your search. In fact, you can direct your search to any number of sites (96 as of this writing) for any given search. They make this easy to switch back and forth as there is a list of your favorite sites directly under the search bar. Some examples of the more popular sites include Amazon, Youtube, Facebook, Reddit, ESPN and Netflix.
If you are so inclined, in addition to getting paid for your internet searches, Presearch also allows you to use your purchased or earned PRE tokens to buy keyword ads. In their words, “Keyword Staking enables token holders to commit or ‘stake’ their PRE tokens against specific words and multi-word terms. With Presearch Keyword Staking you choose a keyword (ex. ‘Bitcoin’) and then stake PRE tokens that you’ve purchased or earned against that term. You can then create an ad that you link to the website of your choice.”
To begin earning PRE for all your internet searches, use the link below.
Presearch Sign Up

3) Crypto.com (CRO & MCO)
Crypto.com is on a mission to be the leader in cryptocurrency adoption to the masses so they are being aggressive with their customer incentives. Another great way to earn crypto for doing what you already do is via their Debit Card cash-back. Crypto.com has great eye-catching, metal crypto reward credit cards that pay you cash back for all of your day to day purchases anywhere VISA is accepted. Depending on which level of card you get, these credit cards reward 1% to 5% cashback (paid in their MCO token) on all spending along with other great benefits like free ATM & international withdrawals, 100% cashback on Spotify & Netflix subscriptions and airport lounge access. You can find the full details for each card on their website, but below is a breakdown of the benefits on their three lowest entry level cards. Note that some of these benefits are reduced if you are not staking their MCO token.

MIDNIGHT BLUE (Plastic Card)
Cash Back Reward: 1%
Monthly Free ATM Withdrawal Limit: $200
Required MCO Stake: None (Free)

RUBY STEEL (Metal)
Cash Back Reward: 2%
100% cashback on a standard Spotify subscription (up to $12.99)
Monthly Free ATM Withdrawal Limit: $400
Required MCO Stake: 50

JADE GREEN & ROYAL INDIGO (Metal)
Cash Back Reward: 3%
100% cashback on a standard Spotify subscription (up to $12.99)
100% cashback on a standard Netflix subscription (up to $12.99)
Monthly Free ATM Withdrawal Limit: $800
Airport Lounge Access
Required MCO Stake: 500

PLEASE NOTE: Cards are currently available in the US, Singapore and Europe. And hopefully very soon will be available in Asia Pacific and Canada as well.
In order to get your hands on one of these cards you will need to open a Crypto.com account if you don’t already have one. There is good news if you don’t already have one, as new sign ups can get $50 worth of MCO tokens free by using the link and promo code I have posted below. Please note that the $50 of MCO tokens will remain locked until you deposit & stake at least 50 MCO tokens toward the sign up of the particular card you are interested in.
In case you are unfamiliar with the term “staked”, this simply means that those coins will be locked up for whatever length of time that card requires. It is important to note that you are not paying or losing those coins as you will be free to sell the staked MCO at the end of holding period and continue to earn crypto cash-back from your card. Or you can leave your MCO coins staked and continue to earn interest on them. For example, if you hold a Jade Green card which requires a 500 MCO stake, they are currently offering 6% interest on those coins which is paid out in more MCO.
In summary, Crypto.com cards are a great way to earn free crypto on your everyday purchases along with other great perks like free (100% cashback) Netflix and Spotify subscriptions. In addition, a small layer of comfort in signing up for one of these cards, is that Crypto.com is one of the largest, most trusted crypto exchanges out there right now. In fact, if you are also looking for an exchange to get started with purchasing crypto assets, your Crypto.com account would be great for that as well. To claim your Crypto.com debit rewards card you can use the link below. If you do not currently have a Crypto.com account and would like to get the $50 Sign Up Bonus use the link along with the promo code.
Crypto.com Sign Up (Get $50 Bonus)
PROMO CODE: gapena3dq4

Earn Free Crypto Instantly for a Little Bit of Your Time
4) Coinbase Earn
In an effort to educate its users and to try and simplify the sometimes complex world of cryptocurrency, Coinbase has put together the Coinbase Earn program. They have partnered with some of the biggest blockchain projects out there to offer you free crypto for watching short educational videos about the coin you are getting rewarded in. These videos are normally about 2-3 minutes long and pay you $2 to $4 per video, with each project having about 4 or 5 total videos.
In order to collect your reward, you normally need to successfully answer a multiple choice question at the end of the video which is usually fairly simple. If you get the question wrong don’t worry, they will allow you to watch the video over again until you get the question correct. Once you have answered the question correctly you will immediately receive your tokens that you are free to sell or exchange for another token of your choice if you would like.
Coinbase is changing their active offerings for these videos all the time and usually have about 4 or 5 projects available at any given time. In addition, some of the projects will not be immediately available and will require you to join a waitlist. Then, once the offering is available to you, they will email you with a link to the videos. Below is the current list of available offerings as of this writing and I will do my best to keep these updated. However, once you have a Coinbase account you can log in and check for new projects on your own. Speaking of which, a Coinbase account is required before you can watch the videos so if you do not already have one you can use the link below to sign up. Using this link will also get you $10 of free Bitcoin as a sign up bonus (Note that to get the free $10 you must buy or sell $100 worth of crypto within 180 days of signing up).
Coinbase Sign Up ($10 Bonus)

Current Coinbase Earn Offerings:
1. EOS – 5 Videos / $2 each / $10 Total
Watch EOS Videos
2. Orchid (OXT)- 3 Videos / $4 each / $12 Total
Watch OXT Videos
3. Stellar Lumens (XLM) - 5 Videos / $2 each / $10
Watch XLM Videos
*** Each of these offerings also provides the opportunity to earn an additional $40 each for referring them to friends and family. ($10 per referral / Max of 4 each)

5) EarnCrypto.com
If you have some free time on your hands and are willing to put in a little effort, EarnCrypto.com is another good option for earning free Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies. On this site you will get paid free crypto for completing tasks like watching videos, playing games and taking surveys.
One nice thing about this site is that once you have completed your task you will be given your free crypto instantly and they offer a very wide selection of coins to pick from. I think right now they offer over 80 different cryptocurrencies for rewards and you get to choose which coin you want to get paid in. This makes for a great way to gain some exposure to lower market cap coins that are often not listed on the major exchanges. In addition, they are adding new coins all the time, so you can send them a request to add your favorite crypto if they don’t already offer it. Use the link below to open an account and start earning the cryptocurrency of your choice now.
EarnCrypto.com Sign Up

What are the best exchanges to buy crypto in the US?

Are you looking to start investing in cryptocurrency and wondering where the best place to buy it is? Or if you are in the US, are you wondering which crypto exchanges are legal for you to use? Check out my post 5 Best Exchanges to Buy Crypto in the US linked below to get some answers to these.
https://cryptoassets101.blogspot.com/
submitted by CaliBum16 to u/CaliBum16 [link] [comments]

12-22 13:34 - ' Etherscan Export CSV Data - 0xc02aaa39b223fe8d0a0e5c4f27ead9083c756cc2 window.dataLayer = window.dataLayer || []; function gtag(){dataLayer.push(arguments);} gtag('js', new Date()); gtag('config', 'UA-4699...' by /u/mahdiamolimoghadam removed from /r/Bitcoin within 128-138min

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submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

Ran full QT node exclusively for 24 hours on Azure

Ran full QT node exclusively for 24 hours on Azure submitted by romanrs to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

MeWe: A trip report

Among the more frequently mentioned G+ alternatives at the Google+ Mass Migration community, and others, is MeWe with over 250 mentions. The site bills itself as "The Next-Gen Social Network" and the "anti-Facebook": "No Ads, No Political Bias, No Spyware. NO BS. It is headed by professed Libertarian CEO Mark Weinstein.
As the site reveals no public user-generated content to non-members, it's necessary to create an account in order to get a full impression. I thought I'd provide an overview based on recent explorations.
This report leads of with background on the company, though readers may find the report and analysis of specific groups on the site of interest.

Leadership

Founder & CEO Mark Weinstein.
Co-Founder & Chief Scientist, Jonathan Wolfe (no longer with company).
Weinstein previously founded SuperFamily and SuperFriends, "at the turn of the millennium". Weinstein's MeWe biography lists articles published by The Mirror (UK), Huffington Post, USA Today, InfoSecurity Magazine, Dark Reading, and the Nation. His media appearances include MarketWatch, PBS, Fox News, and CNN. He's also the author of several personal-success books.
His Crunchbase bio is a repeat of the MeWe content.

Advisory Board

Ownership & Investment

MeWe is the dba of Sgrouples, a private for-profit early-stage venture company based in Los Angeles, though with a Mountain View HQ and mailing address, 11-50 employees, with $10m in funding over five rounds, and a $20m valuation as of 2016.
Sgrouples, Inc., dba MeWe Trust & Safety - Legal Policy c/o Fenwick West 801 California Street Mountain View, CA 94041
Crunchbase Profile.
Founded: 2012 (source)
Secured $1.2M in seed funding in 2014.
2016 valuation: $20m (source]
Backers:
Despite the business address, the company claims to be based in Los Angeles County, California and is described by the Los Angeles Business Journal as a Culver City, CA, company.

Business

Policy

In an August 6, 2018 Twitter post, Weinstein promotes MeWe writing:
Do you have friends still on Facebook? Share this link with them about Facebook wanting their banking information - tell them to move to MeWe now! No Ads. No Spyware. No Political Agenda. No Bias Algorithms. No Shadow Banning. No Facial Recognition.
MeWe provide several policy-related links on the site:
Highlights of these follow.

Privacy

The privacy policy addresses:

Terms of Service

The ToS addresses:
Effective: November 6, 2018.

FAQ

The FAQ addresses:

Values

This emphasises that people are social cratures and private people by right. The service offers the power of self expression under an umbrella of safety. It notes that our innermost thoughts require privacy.
Under "We aspire...":
MeWe is here to empower and enrich your world. We challenge the status quo by making privacy, respect, and safety the foundations of an innovatively designed, easy-to-use social experience.
Totalling 182 words.

Privacy Bill of Rights

A ten-item statement of principles (possibly inspired by another document, it might appear):
  1. You own your personal information & content. It is explicitly not ours.
  2. You will never receive a targeted advertisement or 3rd party content based on what you do or say online. We think that's creepy.
  3. You see every post in timeline order from your friends, family & groups. We do not manipulate, filter, or change the order of your content or what you see.
  4. Permissions & privacy are your rights. You control them.
  5. You control who can access your content.
  6. You control what, if anything, others can see in member searches.
  7. Your privacy means we do not share your personal information with anyone.
  8. Your emojis are for you and your friends. We do not monitor or mine your data.
  9. Your face is your business. We do not use facial recognition technology.
  10. You have the right to delete your account and take your content with you at any time.

Press

There are a few mentions of MeWe in the press, some listed on the company's website, others via web search.

Self-reported articles

The following articles are linked directly from MeWe's Press page:
The page also lists a "Privacy Revolution Required Reading" list of 20 articles all addressing Facebook privacy gaffes in the mainstream press (Wired, TechCrunch, Fortune, Gizmodo, The Guardian, etc.).
There are further self-reported mentions in several of the company's PR releases over the years.

Other mentions

A DuckDuckGo search produces several other press mentions, including:

Technology

This section is a basic rundown of the user-visible site technology.

Mobile Web

The site is not natively accessible from a mobile Web browser as it is overlayed with a promotion for the mobile application instead. Selecting "Desktop View" in most mobile browsers should allow browser-based access.

Mobile App

There are both Android and iOS apps for MeWe. I've used neither of these, though the App store entries note:
Crunchbase cites 209,220 mobile downloads over the past 30 days (via Apptopia), an 80.78% monthly growth rate, from Google Play.

Desktop Web

Either selecting "View Desktop" or navigating with a Desktop browser to https://www.mewe.com your are presented with a registration screen, with the "About", "Privacy Bill of Rights", "MeWe Challenge", and a language selector across the top of the page. Information requested are first and last name, phone or email, and a password. Pseudonymous identities are permitted, though this isn't noted on the login screen. Returning members can use the "Member Log In" button.
The uMatrix Firefox extension reveals no third-party content: all page elements are served from mewe.com, img.mewe.com, cdn.mewe.com, or ws.mewe.com. (In subsequent browsing, you may find third-party plugins from, for example, YouTube, for videos, or Giphy, for animated GIFs.)
The web front-end is nginx. The site uses SSL v3, issued by DigiCert Inc. to Sgrouples, Inc.

Onboarding

The onboarding experience is stark. There is no default content presented. A set of unidentified icons spans the top of the screen, these turn out to be Home, Chats, Groups, Pages, and Events. New users have to, somehow, find groups or people to connect with, and there's little guidance as to how to do this.

Interface

Generally there is a three panel view, with left- and right-hand sidebars of largely navigational or status information, and a central panel with main content. There are also pop-up elements for chats, an omnipresent feature of the site.
Controls display labels on some devices and/or resolutions. Controls do not provide tooltips for navigational aid.

Features

Among the touted features of MeWe are:

Community

A key aspect of any social network is its community. Some of the available or ascertained information on this follows.

Size

Weinstein claims a "million+ following inside MeWe.com" on Twitter.
The largest visible groups appear to have a maximum of around 15,000 members , for "Awesome gifs". "Clean Comedy" rates 13,350, and the largest open political groups, 11,000+ members.
This compares to Google+ which has a staggering, though Android-registrations-inflated 3.3 billion profiles, and 7.9 million communities, though the largest of these come in at under 10 million members. It's likely that MeWe's membership is on the whole more more active than Google+'s, where generally-visible posting activity was limited to just over 9% of all profiles, and the active user base was well under 1% of the total nominal population.

Active Users

MeWe do not publish active users (e.g., MUA / monthly active users) statistics.

Groups

MeWe is principally a group-oriented discussion site -- interactions take place either between individuals or within group contexts. Virtually all discovery is group-oriented. The selection and dynamics of groups on the site will likely strongly affect user experience, so exploring the available groups and their characteristics is of interest.
"MeWe has over 60,000 open groups" according to its FAQ.
The Open groups -- visible to any registered MeWe user, though not to the general public Web -- are browsable, though sections and topics must be expanded to view the contents: an overview isn't immediately accessible. We provide a taste here.
A selection of ten featured topics spans the top of the browser. As I view these, they are:
Specific groups may appear in multiple categories.
The top Groups within these topics have, variously, 15,482, 7,738, 15,482 (dupe), 7,745, 8,223, 8,220, 1,713, 9,527, 2,716, and 1,516 members. Listings scroll at length -- the Music topic has 234 Groups, ranging in size from 5 to 5,738 members, with a median of 59, mean of 311.4, and a 90%ile of 743.5.
Below this is a grid of topics, 122 in all, ranging from Activism to Wellness, and including among them. A selected sample of these topics, with top groups listed members in (parens), follows:
To be clear: whilst I've not included every topic, I've sampled a majority of them above, and listed not an arbitrary selection, but the top few Groups under each topic.

Google+ Groups

The Google Plus expats group seems the most active of these by far.

Political Groups

It's curious that MeWe make a specific point in their FAQ that:
At MeWe we have absolutely no political agenda and we have a very straightforward Terms of Service. MeWe is for all law-abiding people everywhere in the world, regardless of political, ethnic, religious, sexual, and other preferences.
There are 403 political groups on MeWe. I won't list them all here, but the first 100 or so give a pretty clear idea of flavour. Again, membership is in (parentheses). Note that half the total political Groups memberships are in the first 21 groups listed here, the first 6 are 25% of the total.
  1. Donald J. Trump 2016 - Present (11486)
  2. The Conservative's Hangout (8345)
  3. Qanon Follow The White Rabbit (5600)
  4. Drain The Swamp (4978)
  5. Libertarians (4528)
  6. United We Stand Trump2020 (4216)
  7. The Right To Self Defense (3757)
  8. Alternative Media (3711)
  9. Hardcore Conservative Patriots for Trump (3192)
  10. Bastket Of Deplorables4Trump! (3032)
  11. Return of the Republic (2509)
  12. Infowars Chat Room Unofficial (2159)
  13. Donald Trump Our President 2017-2025 (2033)
  14. Berners for Progress (1963)
  15. Sean Hannity Fans (1901)
  16. The American Conservative (1839)
  17. I Am The NRA (1704)
  18. Tucker Carlson Fox News (1645)
  19. We Love Donald Trump (1611)
  20. MAGA - Make America Great Again (1512)
  21. Q (1396)
  22. ClashDaily.com (1384)
  23. news from the front (1337)
  24. Basket of Deplorables (1317)
  25. Payton's Park Bench (1283)
  26. Convention of States (1282)
  27. Britons For Brexit (1186)
  28. MoJo 5.0 Radio (1180)
  29. MeWe Free Press (1119)
  30. The Constitutionally Elite (1110)
  31. Libertarian (1097)
  32. WOMEN FOR PRESIDENT TRUMP (1032)
  33. AMERICANS AGAINST ISIS and OTHER ENEMIES (943)
  34. #WalkAway Campaign (894)
  35. ALEX JONES (877)
  36. The Lion Is Awake ! (854)
  37. We Support Donald Trump! (810)
  38. The Stratosphere Lounge (789)
  39. TRUMP-USA-HANDS OFF OUR PRESIDENT (767)
  40. Official Tea Party USA (749)
  41. Mojo50 Jackholes (739)
  42. Yes Scotland (697)
  43. "WE THE DEPLORABLE" - MOVE ON SNOWFLAKE! (688)
  44. Judge Jeanine Pirro Fans (671)
  45. Anarcho-Capitalism (658)
  46. Ted Cruz for President (650)
  47. No Lapdog Media (647)
  48. Q Chatter (647)
  49. Daily Brexit (636)
  50. Tucker Carlson Fox News (601)
  51. The Trumps Storm Group (600)
  52. QAnon-Patriots WWG1WGA (598)
  53. 100% American (569)
  54. Ladies For Donald Trump (566)
  55. Deep State (560)
  56. In the Name of Liberty (557)
  57. Material Planet (555)
  58. WikiUnderground (555)
  59. Trump NRA Free Speech Patriots on MeWe Gab.ai etc (546)
  60. Magna Carta Group (520)
  61. Constitutional Conservatives (506)
  62. Question Everything (503)
  63. Conspiracy Research (500)
  64. Bill O'Reilly Fans (481)
  65. Conservative Misfit's (479)
  66. Canadian politics (478)
  67. Anarchism (464)
  68. HARDCORE DEPLORABLES (454)
  69. Deplorable (450)
  70. Tampa Bay Trump Club (445)
  71. UK Politics (430)
  72. Bongino Fan Page (429)
  73. Radical Conservatives (429)
  74. RESIST THE RESISTANCE (419)
  75. The Deplorables (409)
  76. America's Freedom Fighters (401)
  77. Politically Incorrect & Proud (399)
  78. CONSERVATIVES FOR AMERICA ! (385)
  79. Political satire (383)
  80. RISE OF THE RIGHT (371)
  81. UK Sovereignty,Independence,Democracy -Everlasting (366)
  82. The Patriots Voting Coalition (359)
  83. End The Insanity (349)
  84. Coming American Civil War! (345)
  85. Constitutional Conservatives (343)
  86. United Nations Watch (342)
  87. A Revival Of The Critical Thinking Union (337)
  88. The New Libertarian (335)
  89. Libertarian Party (official ) (333)
  90. DDS United (Duterte Die-hard Supporters) (332)
  91. American Conservative Veterans (331)
  92. Anarchism/Agorism/Voluntaryism (328)
  93. America Needs Donald Trump (326)
  94. The UKIP Debating Society (321)
  95. Coalition For Trump (310)
  96. Egalitarianism (306)
  97. FRIENDS THAT LIKE JILL STEIN AND THE GREEN PARTY (292)
  98. 2nd Amendment (287)
  99. Never Forget #SethRich (286)
  100. Green Party Supporters 2020 (283)
It seems there is relatively little representation from the left wing, or even the centre, of the political spectrum. A case-insensitive match for "liberal" turns up:
Mainstream political parties are little represented, though again, the balance seems skewed searching on "(democrat|republic|gop)":
The terms "left" and "right" provide a few matches, not all strictly political-axis aligned:
Socialism and Communism also warrant a few mentions:
And there are some references to green, laboulabor parties:

Conclusion

Whilst there may not be a political agenda, there does appear to be at least a slight political bias to the site. And a distinctive skew on many other topical subjects.
Those seeking new homes online may wish to take this into account.

Updates

submitted by dredmorbius to plexodus [link] [comments]

DXCHAIN: big data meets blockchain (Latest Achievements)

DxChain Testnet 3.0 Innovation and Godx open source
Jinse Finance released the in-depth interview with DxChain Co-founder & CEO James Li, discussed the achievement recently. Please refer to the interview down below.
With the development of technology, we keep changing the way of data storage, from tape CDs to flash drive and mobile hard disk, then to the current popular cloud storage. However, as a centralized storage solution, cloud storage has a high cost for establishing data centers, data center management and operations, including hardware and software procurement, and workforce. There are also privacy leaks and service suspensions leading to file loss and other problems.
With the increasing drawbacks of cloud storage, blockchain storage has gradually attracted people's attention. Blockchain storage is a decentralized storage system built with blockchain incentives and is an effective combination of blockchain and storage systems. Blockchain storage builds nodes around the world into a large-scale globally storage pool, which can effectively reduce storage costs and improve the security of private data.
DxChain is a project dedicated to building a decentralized big data storage and computing public chain. In July this year, the DxChain team officially announced Testnet 3.0 and Godx Project is now open source on GitHub (https://github.com/DxChainNetwork/godx).
James Li, co-founder and CEO of DxChain, pointed out that "The development of technology will never stop. If you relax at this time, it will be surpassed by others. Instead of being revolutionized by others, it is better to revolutionize ourselves. From Testnet 2.0 to 3.0, the DxChain team rewrote the system and implemented several new features."
What’s the new improvements in Testnet 3.0 this time? What is Godx project? Please refer below to James Li’s detailed interpretation.
Storage Contract Implementation DxChain Testnet 3.0 implemented the smart contract feature that is compatible with Ethereum Virtual Machine and storage contract protocol with the lightning network. By optimizing the data verification algorithm, a file can be verified in a second.
Once the storage client and host reached an agreement on cost and storage duration, a contract will be signed by both of them. During the contract effective period, each interaction between the client and the host will be considered as a transaction which will be recorded off-chain. To ensure the nonrepudiation of the storage contract and avoid storing excessive data, only the last transaction will be recorded on the chain. At the end of the contract effective period, the storage host will get the collaterals back along with the profits, and the client is able to take back the unspent funds.
In terms of data verification, the entire process is performed off-chain, which improves the storage performance and throughput efficiency while ensuring the security of the data. Once a file is uploaded, it will be encrypted and divided into data shards using a specific encryption and sharding mechanism. Each encrypted data shard will then be distributed to a distinct storage host. At the time a file needs to be restored, only parts of the total data shards are required to recover the original file. In case a storage host went offline or some data shards got corrupted, the file is still accessible by the owner. Since each storage host only has encrypted pieces of the file, it is impossible for them to reveal the content of the original file.
Adaptability and Compatibility Enhancement Solidity is the most common programming language used in the Ethereum Dapp development. By analyzing the Ethereum codes, the DxChain team has combined the Ethereum protocol and the storage protocol. As the result, Dapps running on the Ethereum can directly run on the DxChain.
Modularized Consensus Protocol The DxChai team optimized the system architecture by modularizing the consensus protocol. It not only minimized the code changes when there is a need to upgrade the consensus algorithm, but also provided convenience to developers.
Introduction to DxChain Three Key Features In the blockchain world, code is the law. Open source the Godx project not only eliminates everyone's concerns, but also is a great opportunity for community believers to supervise and to provide valuable suggestions. Ultimately improve DxChain ecosystem and promote DxChain to a community like Bitcoin and Ethereum.
The Godx project includes three key feature highlights: Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) compatibility, storage protocol with lightning network, and zero-second file storage verification algorithm.
Dapp development is based on the public chain, where Ethereum is one of the most popular public chains nowadays. EVM has its unique advantages which makes the development of smart contracts similar to coding. The DxChain team expanded the original EVM by adding the storage contract functionality which is fully compatible with the original virtual machine commands. Thus, the original Ethereum Dapp developers can directly run their application on the DxChain without any modification, which can potentially save developers tons of time on solving issues occurred while migrating the application from Ethereum to DxChain.
By adapting and optimizing the lightning network protocol, the DxChain has implemented its own storage protocol. Through the storage protocol, the two parties who store the file in the main chain are able to sign the contract, carry out the pledge fund and follow up on many details activities (such as uploading/downloading files). When the contract expires or is terminated by other factors, the parties will perform a final settlement and will finalize the results on the chain. By adapting the lightning network protocol, it ensures that the chain can carry out numerous file storage requests without affecting its performance.
The third key feature is zero-second file verification algorithm. DxChain has extended the Merkle Tree, known as Hash Tree, which means a tree that stores hash values. The leaves of the Merkle tree are the hash values ​​of the data blocks. A non-leaf node is a hash of its corresponding child node concatenated string. The main function of Merkle Tree is to get the Top Hash, which represents the information summary of the whole tree. When any data in the tree changes, the value of Top Hash will change. Through the extension of Merkle Tree, DxChain greatly improves the efficiency of verifying and storing files, while reducing the interaction between storage parties in order to eradicate cheating.
James Li revealed that the team has a clear view about our next goal after the Testnet 3.0 release, we will make more efforts on the following three aspects:
1) DPoS consensus protocol implementation 2) petabyte storage supportive 3) overcoming difficulties with file transfering caused by bandwidth limitation
The pursuit of technology is endless. DxChain coruscates new energy and vitality in every breakthrough. We believe DxChain will provide us with a more efficient and safe data storage solution in the future.
DXCHAIN ATTENDED THE SVIEF 2019 “REVOLUTION” SUMMIT AND WON THE INNOVATION AWARD.
DxChain team attended the SVIEF 2019 “Revolution” summit held at the Santa Clara Convention center on September 7-8 and won the honorable title of the TOP 30 Innovation Award.
In addition, DxChain’s Co-founder Allan Zhang was invited as the speaker together with the founder of Bitangel Chandler Guo to share their opinions on Blockchain field development in the panel discussion “Challenges to Blockchain Revolution into the next stage”.
The SVIEF 2019 is designed to be an intense, informative and interactive event that focuses on the theme " Beyond the Next Revolution ", and features 100+ high-profile speakers and 150+ tech exhibitors, bringing together most outstanding startups from the fields of AI, Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Clean Tech, Advanced Manufacturing, Smart Tech, etc.
In the Tech Night Awards Ceremony, DxChain won the Top 30 Innovation Award and unanimous affirmation of the organizer and the scientific and technological people with unique innovative ideas and solid technical progress. Thanks to all the community followers who support and encourage DxChain as always. We have faith in the new era of blockchain!
Here are the highlights of the panel discussion:
Q1: Why do DxChain choose the big data field? The direction of selecting big data is based on the storage problems encountered in real life, such as the large data storage capacity is required and slow storage speed. Therefore, DxChain aims to solve the storage problem with blockchain technology from the most crucial requirements.
Furthermore, data is the most central and fundamental part of technology, the most difficult but also the most valuable. In the future, users can share their idle storage capability in our public chain to form a worldwide network to store numerous files.
Q2. What changes will the blockchain bring to the future?
The technology of the blockchain will affect everyone in the long run. Nowadays, only a few people understand the concept of blockchain. However, we believe that there will be 10 million, 100 million, and 1 billion until everyone participates in the development of the blockchain. Everyone will feel the change brought by the blockchain. DxChain wants to finish the build of blockchain fundamental infrastructure before the concept is popularized to all individuals, and invite more devices and applications to the underlying network of our chain, and contribute to the decentralized storage network.
During the two-day exhibition, DxChain Co-founder and CEO also explained our core concept and technology achievement to blockchain enthusiasts who are interested in DxChain and all participants dropped by our booth.
We highly appreciate the invitation of the SVIEF organizer, wish to see the bright future of blockchain with you all.
Check out the website here: https://www.dxchain.com/ Dxchain Blog Link: https://blog.dxchain.com/ Official Telegram Group Link: @dxchain Let's discuss the queries and suggestions about Dxchain.
submitted by TechnicalChaudhary to BlockChain_info [link] [comments]

Why IBM’s Blockchain Isn’t a Real Blockchain

Why IBM’s Blockchain Isn’t a Real Blockchain
https://preview.redd.it/6iwsjmkd41831.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=94ad098dc9cd9afc0649ef950075efbdf2b2959b
Stuart Popejoy has 15 years experience in building trading systems and exchange backbones for the financial industry. Prior to co-founding Kadena with Will Martino in 2016 and becoming the company's president, Stuart worked at JPMorgan Chase in the new products division, where he led and developed JPMorgan’s main blockchain product, Juno. Stuart also wrote the algorithmic trading scripts for JPMorgan, which informed his creation of Kadena’s simple, purpose-built smart contract language, Pact.
The views and opinions expressed here are solely those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of Cointelegraph.
IBM is a major player in the world of enterprise blockchain, offering a blockchain platform based on Hyperledger Fabric and launching blockchain pilots with large companies like Walmart and Aetna.
As one of many contributors (including recently announced Microsoft and Salesforce) to the nonprofit, the open source Hyperledger Foundation, IBM has made a huge investment in promoting Fabric as a private or “permissioned” blockchain, implying that it offers features in common with well-known blockchains like Bitcoin or Ethereum, while somehow removing any aspects that might be “unsuitable for enterprise.”
However, the technology IBM is actually selling and calling “blockchain” — i.e., Hyperledger Fabric — sacrifices the most important features of a true blockchain, whether permissioned or public. Fabric’s architecture is far more complex than any blockchain platform while also being less secure against tampering and attacks. You would think that a “private” blockchain would at least offer scalability and performance, but Fabric fails here as well. Simply put, pilots built on Fabric will face a complex and insecure deployment that won’t be able to scale with their businesses.

Blockchain options on the market

When I worked at JPMorgan Chase in 2016, I led an emerging technology group that researched and vetted blockchains for the bank’s potential use and strategic investment. This involved in-depth analyses of early versions of Hyperledger, Axoni, Symbiont, Ripple and Ethereum. It was clear back then that the blockchain options on the market were technologically inadequate for real enterprise use cases. Unfortunately, we see these same core problems today with Hyperledger Fabric.
The concerns we raised included: How does a blockchain’s smart contract language safely and simply express complex business rules? How are public-key signatures guaranteed to be valid? Can the system scale to additional participants (nodes) without drastically slowing down performance? And, for a future-thinking enterprise, can you interoperate with other public and private blockchains easily?
Using these questions as a framework, I believe that IBM’s system fundamentally lacks the required elements of a blockchain, with misleading performance numbers and questionable long-term business viability. While my colleagues and I don’t see the numbers game (transactions per second, node count) as the only factor in blockchain adoption, we do think it’s important to educate people on what a blockchain is and is not. This education will hopefully help everyone better understand the landscape of the emerging technology of blockchain.

What blockchain is and isn’t

In order to really understand where IBM’s blockchain stands, we need to look at the very definition of a blockchain itself. A blockchain is, at its core, a decentralized immutable ledger of events or transactions in which truth is enforced by a consensus mechanism. In public blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum, this consensus is achieved through Proof of Work, or “mining.” In permissioned blockchain, consensus can be achieved through participants supplying cryptographic signatures to vote on what gets written. Either way, no central authority arbitrates what is true.
IBM’s definition of blockchain captures the distributed and immutable elements of blockchain but conveniently leaves out decentralized consensus –– that’s because Hyperledger Fabric doesn’t require a true consensus mechanism at all. Instead, it suggests using an “ordering service” called Kafka. The problem is that, without enforced, democratized, cryptographically secure voting between participants, you can’t prove that somebody hasn’t tampered with the ledger. A fault-tolerant consensus is a hallmark feature of a blockchain, and without it, IBM’s “blockchain” is little more than a time-stamped list of entries.
Fabric’s architecture exposes numerous vulnerabilities that can be exploited by malicious coordination. For instance, it introduces public-key cryptography "inside the network" with validator signatures, which provide the main security assurance but originate after an externally signed transaction has been submitted. This fundamentally invalidates the proven security model of Bitcoin and other real blockchains, in which the provenance of any transaction is assured only by an external user’s public key signature, and cannot be intermediated in any way by the system. In sharp contrast, the only signatures that matter on Fabric for consensus are those of the validator, while the user signatures disappear into an arbitrary dataset replicated through the network.
Fabric researchers play fast and loose with performance numbers because, fundamentally, Fabric’s architecture cannot scale while maintaining peak performance. Fabric uses a multichain environment (called "channels") to provide confidentiality between participants. Providing confidentiality is an important feature for private “enterprise” blockchain and necessarily involves trade-offs and complexity, but a multichain solution is a bad choice for scalability. It also makes for a woefully complex deployment, with nonuniform nodes, unreliable smart contracts and proliferating potential points of failure.
Thus, performance numbers for a standard Fabric deployment are unimpressive to start, degrade rapidly as nodes get added and are single-channel: If you want to transact with the whole network across multiple channels, the numbers aren’t even relevant. Even so, when looking at individual channels, this system struggles to get above 800 transactions per second (TPS), but even a 16-channel configuration can barely get above 1,500 TPS, with latencies reaching well into the 10-20 second range at the upper throughputs.
Recent efforts to speed up Fabric have resulted in claims of reaching up to 20,000 TPS, but the changes made to the architecture by researchers move so far from blockchain as to be unrecognizable: Endorsers no longer act as validators and Kafka is enshrined as the only possible ordering service (Fabric, in theory, can accept a true blockchain consensus, but it would be so slow that nobody would ever use it in production). Finally, these are still single-channel numbers, meaning the whole notion of a blockchain as a shared source of truth is invalidated.

Why smart contracts and hybrid options matter

The final points of consideration when looking at blockchains are how they intend to scale beyond private databases and how their tools –– such as their smart contract language –– intend to help businesses succeed on a larger scale. Remember, a smart contract is not just a piece of code; it is a representation of business logic. A smart contract may secure a house on the blockchain, assure a digital identity, or even represent an escrow transaction between people buying and selling a used car. It is important that a smart contract is reliable and always does what it says it will.
When it comes to building anything on a blockchain, you need to be able to represent what you want to do (buy, sell, package data, etc.) through smart contracts. The easier or simpler your language is to use, the faster you will build the thing you want and get it in front of the eyes of stakeholders. More importantly, you want the smart contract’s function to actually generate revenue or some positive outcome for your business.
Hyperledger Fabric’s smart contracts (“chaincode”) can be written in a number of programming languages, including general Javascript or Go. But there are trade-offs between the convenience of a programmer already knowing a general purpose language and the security and safety that a domain-specific language provides. When the stakes are as high as in blockchain –– where millions of dollars can be lost if the code is buggy or incorrect because it wasn’t designed for blockchain –– the smart contract language must be purpose-built and safe by design. Ideally, it would also be easy to learn and simple to use in the desired blockchain environment. Chaincode largely fails in this regard; we found it took some 150 lines of code just to execute the classic programmer tutorial “hello world.” And this massive amount of code can become a breeding ground for those million-dollar bugs.

Not ready for the future

Increasingly, the most sophisticated observers of blockchain ecosystems are realizing that private and public blockchains will not exist in a vacuum but instead will want to work together: A private network will want to make a token available to consumers on a public blockchain, and a public blockchain’s decentralized application will want to store sensitive information on a private blockchain. Unfortunately, users of IBM Fabric (as well as R3 Corda) could find themselves "cut off" from public blockchains by the sheer incompatibility of the architecture — but also by the inability of their smart contract language to execute seamlessly in both a public and private environment.
As IBM dominates a lot of the enterprise blockchain press cycle with its announcements of partnerships, it is important to look under the hood at what the technology can actually do. IBM’s “blockchain” technology falls short in numerous ways — including security, performance and reliability — and as such, provides an inferior solution for organizations looking to use blockchain to achieve meaningful business improvements. To truly realize the value of blockchain, sophisticated customers will look to challengers offering better tools, better blockchains, and a better vision for the future and how we utilize technology.
submitted by Rajladumor1 to omgfin [link] [comments]

The EndChain Project Progress News

The EndChain Project Progress News

https://preview.redd.it/imbucg1tupv11.png?width=2305&format=png&auto=webp&s=0ecc983a6fd72b616f6f763ab7b488df3c3d69d8
The EndChain project is an affordable tracking solution for all markets. The EndChain team is happy to update the community about our most recent news and achievements.

Our team

Our team consists of multiple people from HNA, one of the largest companies in the world. They are also the owner of Ingram Micro (a large logistics company) and multiple airlines. Additionally, we have several technical experts, including those who specialize in AI.

Our advisors

We have advisors in multiple logistics fields including the MD of lalamove, a $1 billion logistics company.

Our patent

We have applied for a US patent to secure our integrated Qbarcode combination. Our patent number can be found on our website. We are extremely positive that the patent will be issued to us as we have done background research on existing patents to ensure a similar one does not exist.

Why is our product necessary

Current solutions for blockchain in the market usually rely on 2 things: NFC chips or manual entry. Both of these are expensive options and exclude low-mid priced items. That is why so many blockchain companies focus on luxury goods such as art, handbags and diamonds. EndChain’s Qbarcode combination can be used at a fraction at a cost. Our API can be integrated with existing manufacturers and legacy systems.

Our product’s benefits

  • It can be easily integrated. Logistics companies and manufacturers have spent million developing their own internal systems. They are not currently willing to completely revamp their systems to support blockchain. EndChain solves this by extracting both the generic barcode and blockchain-specific QR code data at the same time. The barcode data will be used to update legacy systems and the blockchain data will be used to update the blockchain. This makes it easy to integrate with existing systems.
  • Uploading Data Only. During certain times, the average connection to the blockchain can become slow. This can be due to multiple issues such as wi-fi issues or the blockchain becoming congested. When this happens, it becomes difficult to process transactions or download data. This can be detrimental to a logistics or manufacturing company that has daily quotas. Due to the nature of the Qbarcode combination, there is no need to download data, only to upload data. If the blockchain is congested, data will be held locally until the blockchain is less congested. Afterwards, it will be uploaded and the local data will be deleted.
  • Artificial Intelligence. AI will be used to detect abnormalities to fight fraud. Parameters such as: how many times a code was scanned, its location(s), etc, will be used to determine if a code has been copied.
  • Simplified packaging. Packages nowadays can have 2-3 QR codes and multiple barcodes. It becomes troublesome for logistics companies to know which code to scan. By having an EndChain code, it will be very apparent which is the correct code for the logistics/manufacturers to scan.

Our technology

EndChain has hundreds of commits on github. Right now have completed our smart contract and 1st generation of our barcode/QR code generator as well as our dual data extractor. This means that we can create the combination code while still making the QR code readable. Our next steps are to talk to multiple logistics companies to see how to best integrate with them and build our blockchain.
Subscribe and find out about EndChain news first:
BitcoinTalk
Reddit
Medium
Twitter
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#EndChain #blockchain #cryptocurrency #ICO #technology #logistics #transport #cryptomarket
submitted by EndChain to u/EndChain [link] [comments]

A message to the TRX Community and Justin Sun YuChen:

Everyone likes to play; which is why I'm educating this community with an Article on the topic of: Gamifying the Delivery of Money ( paraphrasing an article from HackerNoon.com )
If we can turn the distribution of this new "money" into a "game" of sorts, our success as a network will be all but guaranteed!
The existence, the physical universe is basically playful... So we can say without a doubt, that gamifying "money" will rapidly attract interest from the world's population, as any good game would. ( Alan Watts: Your Life Is Not A Journey; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qHnIJeE3LAI )
The layman's term goal of gamified money distribution is to simply get it evenly across the playing field, as quickly as possible, without devaluing the money. The essential reason for this is that, very simply; If everyone is playing the "game", the best players will soon join the lobby and queue up for a bit of "play"... (Attracting big players ensures the security of the "game", because big players will protect and support the game that they're "playing")
Some of the most successful companies in the world "gamified" their company shares and experienced MASSIVE network effect growth because of this; Amazon paid their first employees with SHARES, not salaries... This incentivizes the employees to truly do their best work, knowing they will increase their "piece of the pie" evenly!
This is what "blockchain" is at it's core level, it is the most efficient & technologically advanced form of distributing "shares" for ANY idea/company/nation/person... If you see that, you're already a true believer!
Step 1: DESTROY your greed (partially)
This is the easiest step, out of all 4 steps, just understand this one thing; As long as you have a slice of the pie, you simply focus on growing the pie, not the slice...You already have a share in this idea, so focusing on making the idea more powerful will increase the value of your shares, this is the beauty of a network effect and is the only reason you've made ANY money at all in the Blockchain Industry... Do not fall prey to the "tragedy of the commons"
Step 2: Build (or buy) a Killer App
First off, click here to see the definition of a "killer app" so your mind doesn't wander...BitTorrent is our killer app, and it may well be Blockchain's killer app; it is experiencing incentivization problems that highlight the dangers of the tragedy of the commons. This is a good thing, it gives Tron an opportunity to prove the use case of not only itself, but of all Blockchain technology' potential.
Currently, BitTorrent is experiencing problems with "free riders"; people who only download files (consuming bandwidth) and failing to upload those files after they are finished. Essentially, users of BitTorrent are doing what's best for them, but not what's best for the BitTorrent network & protocol...
This is not entirely their fault, Thomas Hobbes predicted some years ago; that to make a society function at massive scale, you need to have the right incentives in place. I'm sure all of us would mostly agree that the world currently has massive incentivization problems (ie. innocent homeless are starving, criminals in jail being fed/sheltered)
It is my understanding and belief that Justin Sun YuChen bought BitTorrent in an effort to prove the use-case of Tron and therefore Bitcoin & Blockchain by extension... He saw the problems BitTorrent was having, and he looks at them as opportunities to flex the power of a decentralized internet...
The TRX Coin would have amounted to nothing without a plan, without a Killer App, and you should know that Justin Sun has been trying to acquire BitTorrent since before the ICO started, he knew this... The coin is secondary, the coin is the "fuel", the "gas", he was focused on acquiring the "vehicle" first, as he should've...
Step 3: STEALTHILY Gamify the Killer App
There's nothing worse than overt, upfront gamification...Just think about flashy Las Vegas, get rich quick schemes, and timeshares; THAT is overt gamification...
We need stealthy gamification... Imagine you have a sudden craving for a piece of content available on BitTorrent...You open your app, click download, and you're prompted with a request to "skip" the download time for 2 TRX, you click accept and your download is immediately available to fulfill your craving. Now think the same situation, but you don't need the content immediately, you can let it download while you cook your dinner. When you get back to your viewing device, the content is ready and you receive another pop-up request asking if you'd like to provide extra bandwidth to upload this video for others at a reward rate of 1 TRX per hour, you click accept, watch your movie and then suddenly get another craving... This time you don't want to wait, so you spend the 2 TRX you just earned...
THIS is stealth gamification... It does not feel like Vegas, or a slot-machine, or gambling... You simply use it, get value, provide value, and transfer value... STEALTH GAMIFICATION
REMEMBER THIS: Every person who adds to the value of the network, adds to the value of their AND everyone else's shares, which further incentives each party to continue adding value to the network. (This is why you've seen exponential growth in Cryptocurrencies)
Network Effect: "Do what is best for the network, the network will thrive"
Tragedy of the Commons: "Do what is best for yourself, the network will die"
A proper network effect rewards those who benefit the network, and punishes those who exploit the network.
BitTorrent has failed to truly succeed YET because they have only done half of the equation, they have only punished those who exploit the network (slowing download speeds for those who don't upload)... There is no "reward", they need the second portion of the equation, and TRX can provide that... effectively!
Step 4: Reinvest & Revolutionize Economics
If TRX can be successful in building this network effect, and properly manage their greed long enough to accomplish that goal, it will create "groups" of different gamified networks all receiving a steady stream of income and that will do something incredible historically speaking: It will END the quarterly result so thoroughly craved by share holders around the world...
Rather than a network's value being represented by it's profits every 3 months, it will be truly and authentically represented by the power of the network, distinguishing itself in an entirely good way from typical stocks & shares in today's modern environment.
Developers will no longer be forced to choose between producing a quality product, or pushing out some "thing" that will sell quickly and turn profit for the 3-month period... They will be directly incentivized to make the best quality product to increase their network effect, and therefore the value of their holdings...
ENDING NOTES:
If you become a greedy entity who tries to control everything, strangling the system with centralized choke points to keep all the money for yourself, you’ll accelerate the current collapse of our economic stability and break this world. Your crimes will live forever in infamy...
But if you can resist the urge to dominate, to control, to horde every resource, you can unlock the vast hidden potential of the world. Do that and your deeds will echo in the halls of eternity...
You. Just. Might. Save. The. World.
submitted by TwitchTV_Allthaea to Tronix [link] [comments]

SegWit would make it HARDER FOR YOU TO PROVE YOU OWN YOUR BITCOINS. SegWit deletes the "chain of (cryptographic) signatures" - like MERS (Mortgage Electronic Registration Systems) deleted the "chain of (legal) title" for Mortgage-Backed Securities (MBS) in the foreclosure fraud / robo-signing fiasco

Summary (TL;DR)

Many people who study the financial crisis which started in 2008 know about "MERS", or "Mortgage Electronic Registration Systems" - a company / database containing over 62 million mortgages.
(The word "mortgages" may be unfamiliar to some non-English speakers - since it is not a cognate with most other languages. In French, they say "hypothèques", or "hipotecas" in Spanish, "Hypotheken" in German, etc).
The goal of MERS was to "optimize" the process of transferring "title" (legal ownership) of real-estate mortgages, from one owner to another.
But instead, in the 2010 "foreclosure crisis", MERS caused tens of billions of dollars in losses and damages - due to the "ususual" way it handled the crucial "ownership data" for real-estate mortgages - the data at the very heart of the database.
https://duckduckgo.com/?q=%22foreclosure+fraud%22+%22robo+signing%22+MERS&t=h_&ia=web
How did MERS handle this crucial "ownership data" for real-estate mortgages?
The "brilliant" idea behind MERS to "optimize" the process of conveying (transferring) mortgages was to separate - and eventually delete - all the data proving who transferred what to whom!
Hmm... that sounds vaguely familiar. What does that remind me of?
SegWit separating and then deleting the "chain of (cryptographic) signatures" for bitcoins sounds a lot like MERS separating and then deleting the "chain of (legal) title" for mortgages.
So, SegWit and MERS have a lot in common:
Of course, the "experts" (on Wall Street, and at AXA-owned Blockstream) present MERS and SegWit as "innovations" - as a way to "optimize" and "streamline" vast chains of transactions reflecting ownership and transfer of valuable items (ie, real-estate mortgages, and bitcoins).
But, unfortunately, the "brilliant bat-shit insane approach" devised by the "geniuses" behind MERS and SegWit to do this is to simply delete the data which proved ownership and transfer of these items - information which is essential for legal purposes (in the case of mortgages), or security purposes (in the case of bitcoins).
So, the most pernicious aspect of SegWit may be that it encourages deleting all of Bitcoin's cryptographic security data - destroying the "chain of signatures" which (according to the white paper) are what define what a "bitcoin" actually is.
Wow, deleting signatures with SegWit sounds bad. Can I avoid SegWit?
Yes you can.
To guarantee the long-term cryptographic, legal and financial security of your bitcoins:

Details

MERS = "The dog ate your mortgage's chain of title".
SegWit = "The dog ate your bitcoin's chain of signatures."
Wall Street-backed MERS = AXA-backed SegWit
It is probably no coincidence that:
How is AXA related to Blockstream?
Insurance multinational AXA, while not a household name, is actually the second-most-connected "fiat finance" firm in the world.
AXA's former CEO Pierre Castries was head of the secretive Bilderberg Group of the world's ultra-rich. (Recently, he moved on to HSBC.)
Due to AXA's massive exposure to derivatives (bigger than any other insurance company), it is reasonable to assume that AXA would be destroyed if Bitcoin reaches trillions of dollars in market cap as a major "counterparty-free" asset class - which would actually be quite easy using simple & safe on-chain scaling - ie, just using bigger blocks, and no SegWit.
So, the above facts provide one plausible explanation of why AXA-owned Blockstream seems to be quietly trying to undermine Bitcoin...
Do any Core / Blockstream devs and supporters know about MERS - and recognize its dangerous parallels with SegWit?
It would be interesting to hear from some of the "prominent" Core / Blockstream devs and supporters listed below to find out if they are aware of the dangerous similarities between SegWit and MERS:
Finally, it could also be interesting to hear from:
Core / Blockstream devs might not know about MERS - but AXA definitely does
While it is likely that most or all Core / Blockstream devs do not know about the MERS fiasco...
...it is 100% certain that people at AXA (the main owners of Blockstream) do know about MERS.
This is because the global financial crisis which started in 2008 was caused by:
The major financial media and blogs (Naked Capitalism, Zero Hedge, Credit Slips, Washington's Blog, etc.) covered MERS extensively:
https://duckduckgo.com/?q=site%3Anakedcapitalism.com+mers&t=h_&ia=web
https://duckduckgo.com/?q=site%3Azerohedge.com+mers&t=h_&ia=web
https://duckduckgo.com/?q=site%3Acreditslips.org+mers&t=h_&ia=web
https://duckduckgo.com/?q=site%3Awashingtonsblog.com+mers&t=h_&ia=web
So people at all the major "fiat finance firms" such as AXA would of course be aware of CDOs, MBSs and MERS - since these have been "hot topics" in their industry since the start of the global financial crisis in 2008.
Eerie parallels between MERS and SegWit
Read the analysis below of MERS by legal scholar Christopher Peterson - and see if you notice the eerie parallels with SegWit (with added emphasis in bold, and commentary in square brackets):
http://scholarship.law.wm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3399&context=wmlr
Loans originated with MERS as the original mortgagee purport to separate the borrower’s promissory note, which is made payable to the originating lender, from the borrower’s conveyance of a mortgage, which purportedly is granted to MERS. If this separation is legally incorrect - as every state supreme court looking at the issue has agreed - then the security agreements do not name an actual mortgagee or beneficiary.
The mortgage industry, however, has premised its proxy recording strategy on this separation, despite the U.S. Supreme Court’s holding that “the note and mortgage are inseparable.” [Compare with the language from Satoshi's whitepaper: "We define an electronic coin as a chain of digital signatures."]
If today’s courts take the Carpenter decision at its word, then what do we make of a document purporting to create a mortgage entirely independent of an obligation to pay? If the Supreme Court is right that a “mortgage can have no separate existence” from a promissory note, then a security agreement that purports to grant a mortgage independent of the promissory note attempts to convey something that cannot exist.
[...]
Many courts have held that a document attempting to convey an interest in realty fails to convey that interest if the document does not name an eligible grantee. Courts around the country have long held that “there must be, in every grant, a grantor, a grantee and a thing granted, and a deed wanting in either essential is absolutely void.”
The parallels between MERS and SegWit are obvious and inescapable.
Note that I am not arguing here that SegWit could be vulnerable to attacks from a strictly legal perspective. (Although that may be possible to.)
I am simply arguing that SegWit, because it encourages deleting the (cryptographic) signature data which defines "bitcoins", could eventually be vulnerable to attacks from a cryptographic perspective.
But I heard that SegWit is safe and tested!
Yeah, we've heard a lot of lies from Blockstream, for years - and meanwhile, they've only succeeded in destroying Bitcoin's market cap, due to unnecessarily high fees and unnecessarily slow transactions.
Now, in response to those legal-based criticisms of SegWit in the article from nChain, several so-called "Bitcoin legal experts" have tried to rebut that those arguments from nChain were somehow "flawed".
But if you read the rebuttals of these "Bitcoin legal experts", they sound a lot like the clueless "experts" who were cheerleading MERS for its "efficiency" - and who ended up costing tens billions of dollars in losses when the "chain of title" for mortgages held in the MERS database became "clouded" after all the crucial "ownership data" got deleted in the name of "efficiency" and "optimization".
In their attempt to rebut the article by nChain, these so-called "Bitcoin legal experts" use soothing language like "optimization" and "pragmatic" to try to lull you into believing that deleting the "chain of (cryptographic) signatures" for your bitcoins will be just as safe as deleting the "chain of (legal) notes" for mortgages:
http://www.coindesk.com/bitcoin-legal-experts-nchain-segwit-criticisms-flawed/
The (unsigned!) article on CoinDesk attempting to rebut Nguyen's article on nChain starts by stating:
Nguyen's criticisms fly in the face of what has emerged as broad support for the network optimization, which has been largely embraced by the network's developers, miners and startups as a pragmatic step forward.
Then it goes on to quote "Bitcoin legal experts" who claim that using SegWit to delete Bitcoin's cryptographic signatures will be just fine:
Marco Santori, a fintech lawyer who leads the blockchain tech team at Cooley LLP, for example, took issue with what he argued was the confused framing of the allegation.
Santori told CoinDesk:
"It took the concept of what is a legal contract, and took the position that if you have a blockchain signature it has something to do with a legal contract."
And:
Stephen Palley, counsel at Washington, DC, law firm Anderson Kill, remarked similarly that the argument perhaps put too much weight on the idea that the "signatures" involved in executing transactions on the bitcoin blockchain were or should be equivalent to signatures used in digital documents.
"It elides the distinction between signature and witness data and a digital signature, and they're two different things," Palley said.
And:
"There are other ways to cryptographically prove a transaction is correctly signed other than having a full node," said BitGo engineer Jameson Lopp. "The assumption that if a transaction is in the blockchain, it's probably valid, is a fairly good guarantee."
Legal experts asserted that, because of this design, it's possible to prove that the transaction occurred between parties, even if those involved did not store signatures.
For this reason, Coin Center director Jerry Brito argued that nChain is overstating the issues that would arise from the absence of this data.
"If you have one-time proof that you have the bitcoin, if you don't have it and I have it, logically it was signed over to me. As long as somebody in the world keeps the signature data and it's accessible, it's fine," he said.
There are several things you can notice here:
  • These so-called "Bitcoin legal experts" are downplaying the importance of signatures in Bitcoin - just like the "experts" behind MERS downplayed the importance of "notes" for mortgages.
  • Satoshi said that a bitcoin is a "chain of digital signatures" - but these "Bitcoin legal experts" are now blithely asserting that we can simply throw the "chain of digital signatures" in the trash - and we can be "fairly" certain that everything will "probably" be ok.
  • The "MERS = SegWit" argument which I'm making is not based on interpreting Bitcoin signatures in any legal sense (although some arguments could be made along those lines).
  • Instead, I'm just arguing that any "ownership database" which deletes its "ownership data" (whether it's MERS or SegWit) is doomed to end in disaster - whether that segregated-and-eventually-deleted "ownership data" is based on law (with MERS), or cryptography (with SegWit).
Who's right - Satoshi or the new "Bitcoin experts"?
You can make up your own mind.
Personally, I will never send / receive / store large sums of money using any "SegWit" bitcoin addresses.
This, is not because of any legal considerations - but simply because I want the full security of "the chain of (cryptographic) signatures" - which, according to the whitepaper, is the very definition of what a bitcoin "is".
Here are the words of Satoshi, from the whitepaper, regarding the "chain of digital signatures":
https://www.bitcoin.com/bitcoin.pdf
We define an electronic coin as a chain of digital signatures. Each owner transfers the coin to the next by digitally signing a hash of the previous transaction and the public key of the next owner and adding these to the end of the coin. A payee can verify the signatures to verify the chain of ownership.
Does that "chain of digital signatures" sound like something you'd want to throw in the trash??
  • The "clever devs" from AXA-owned Blockstream (and a handful of so-called "Bitcoin legal experts) say "Trust us, it is safe to delete the chain of signatures proving ownership and transfer of bitcoins". They're pushing "SegWit" - the most radical change in the history of Bitcoin. As I have repeatedly discussed, SegWit weakens Bitcoin's security model.
  • The people who support Satoshi's original Bitcoin (and clients which continue to implement it: Bitcoin ABC, Bitcoin Unlimited, Bitcoin, Bitcoin Classic - all supporting "Bitcoin Cash" - ie "Bitcoin" without SegWit) say "Trust no one. You should never delete the chain of signatures proving ownership and transfer of your bitcoins."
  • Satoshi said:

We define an electronic coin as a chain of digital signatures.

  • So, according to Satoshi, a "chain of digital signatures" is the very definition of what a bitcoin is.
  • Meanwhile according to some ignorant / corrupt devs from AXA-owned Blockstream (and a handful of "Bitcoin legal experts") now suddenly it's "probably" "fairly" safe to just throw Satoshi's "chain of digital signatures" in the trash - all in the name of "innovation" and "efficiency" and "optimization" - because they're so very clever.
Who do you think is right?
Finally, here's another blatant lie from SegWit supporters (and small-block supporters)
Let's consider this other important quote from Satoshi's whitepaper above:
A payee can verify the signatures to verify the chain of ownership.
Remember, this is what "small blockers" have always been insisting for years.
They've constantly been saying that "blocks need to be 1 MB!!1 Waah!1!" - even though several years ago the Cornell study showed that blocks could already be 4 MB, with existing hardware and bandwidth.
But small-blockers have always insisted that everyone should store the entire blockchain - so they can verify their own transactions.
But hey, wait a minute!
Now they turn around and try to get you to use SegWit - which allows deleting the very data which insisted that you should download and save locally to verify your own transactions!
So, once again, this exposes the so-called "arguments" of small-blocks supporters as being fake arguments and lies:
  • On the one hand, they (falsely) claim that small blocks are necessary in order for everyone to be run "full nodes" because (they claim) that's the only way people can personally verify all their own transactions. By the way, there are already several errors here with what they're saying:
    • Actually "full nodes" is a misnomer (Blockstream propaganda). The correct terminology is "full wallets", because only miners are actually "nodes".
    • Actually 1 MB "max blocksize" is not necessary for this. The Cornell study showed that we could easily be using 4 MB or 8 MB blocks by now - since, as everyone knows, the average size of most web pages is already over 2 MB, and everyone routinely downloads 2 MB web pages in a matter of seconds, so in 10 minutes you could download - and upload - a lot more than just 2 MB. But whatever.
  • On the other hand, they support SegWit - and the purpose of SegWit is to allow people to delete the "signature data".
    • This conflicts with their argument the everyone should personally verify all their own transactions. For example, above, Coin Center director Jerry Brito was saying: "As long as somebody in the world keeps the signature data and it's accessible, it's fine."
    • So which is it? For years, the "small blockers" told us we needed to all be able to personally verify everything on our own node. And now SegWit supporters are telling us: "Naah - you can just rely on someone else's node."
    • Plus, while the transactions are still being sent around on the wire, the "signature data" is still there - it's just "segregated" - so you're not getting any savings on bandwidth anyways - you'd only get the savings if you delete the "signature data" from storage.
    • Storage is cheap and plentiful, it's never been the "bottleneck" in the system. Bandwidth is the main bottleneck - and SegWit doesn't help that at all, because it still transmits all the data.
Conclusion
So if you're confused by all the arguments from small-blockers and SegWitters, there's a good reason: their "arguments" are total bullshit and lies. They're attempting to contradict and destroy:
  • Satoshi's original design of Bitcoin as a "chain of digital signatures":
"We define an electronic coin as a chain of digital signatures. Each owner transfers the coin to the next by digitally signing a hash of the previous transaction and the public key of the next owner and adding these to the end of the coin. A payee can verify the signatures to verify the chain of ownership."
  • Satoshi's plan for scaling Bitcoin by simply increasing the goddamn blocksize:
Satoshi Nakamoto, October 04, 2010, 07:48:40 PM "It can be phased in, like: if (blocknumber > 115000) maxblocksize = largerlimit / It can start being in versions way ahead, so by the time it reaches that block number and goes into effect, the older versions that don't have it are already obsolete."
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/3wo9pb/satoshi_nakamoto_october_04_2010_074840_pm_it_can/
  • The the notorious mortgage database MERS, pushed by clueless and corrupt Wall Street bankers, deleted the "chain of (legal) title" which had been essential to show who conveyed what mortgages to whom - leading to "clouded titles", foreclosure fraud, and robo-signing.
  • The notorious SegWit soft fork / kludge, pushed by clueless and corrupt AXA-owned Blockstream devs, allows deleting the "chain of (cryptographic) signatures" which is essential to show who sent how many bitcoins to whom - which could lead to a catastrophe for people who foolishly use SegWit addresses (which can be avoided: unsafe "SegWit" bitcoin addresses start with a "3" - while safe, "normal" Bitcoin addresses start with a "1").
  • Stay safe and protect your bitcoin investment: Avoid SegWit transactions.
[See the comments from me directly below for links to several articles on MERS, foreclosure fraud, robo-signing, "clouded title", etc.]
submitted by ydtm to btc [link] [comments]

Elastos - Why it Fundamentally Matters, A Practical Analysis

This post is my humble attempt to convince you why Elastos is solving such a large problem with the internet today and hopefully providing a practical lens through which to understand what the implications are. Rong Chen speaks often about the need to create a new internet for us to truly have a digital economy akin to our physical economy but it is not easy to conceptually grasp what that means, why it matters, nor how Elastos is the solution to this. Hopefully this will be useful. Enjoy!
WHY WE NEED SCARCITY IN A DIGITAL ECONOMY
Today, I don’t own any of my digital assets. If I want to purchase music, a game, a film, a digital collectible, I can’t buy it, I can only lease it into perpetuity. If I want to listen to music I stream it from Spotify, if I want to download this I can, but I can’t resell it, I don’t really own it. As such my purchase has no resale value and thus is not a store of value. For all intents and purposes my ‘asset’ is worthless after I ‘buy’ it and it cannot be traded into fiat. This is not how the physical economy works and is not how it can continue to work if we want to transition to a truly digital / smart economy.
WHAT IS NEEDED FOR SCARCITY TO EXIST IN A DIGITAL ECONOMY
Two things: 1. Immutable ownership records 2. Security of data file transfer
Most people in the blockchain space only consider point 1 here. The typical train of thought is “if I can secure ownership data on a blockchain then boom, digital economy created, problem solved”. This is not true. If we were to consider Bitcoin in the context of a replacement for currency, it actually serves two functions not one. First it registers who owns what (immutable ownership records), and second it provides security for that data as transactions occur so any ‘money’ I send you cannot be copied (security of data file transfer, in this case preventing the double transactions problem). However taking the example of a song, or let’s say a Pokemon in the game Pokemon Go, or any other digital item that could be considered an ‘asset’ but where the data is far more complex, and the distinction between these two problems becomes extremely relevant.
Let’s hypothetically say I’m a game developer and make a game equivalent to Pokemon Go. I then decide I’m going to allow my users to trade their Pokemon with each other. Why would I do this? To increase user engagement and time spent in my game, which would allow me to continually sell other in-app purchases (e.g. Pokeballs etc). However what will my users demand of the functionality to buy and sell Pokemon to each other for fiat? Clear ownership of their Pokemon, and the knowledge that no-one can steal/copy them. The Pokemon are just code, the blockchain can keep track of who technically owns which Pokemon but as I send you the Pokemon what happens if someone intercepts the data transfer and copies the code? Well even though ownership of the code is still secured on the blockchain, someone has still stolen the Pokemon and can at the very least use it if not re-sell it. The same concept could apply to a song or any other asset. You still have a form of the double transaction problem, it has another name: piracy.
HOW CAN WE ACHIEVE BOTH IMMUTABLE OWNERSHIP AND SECURITY OF DATA FILE TRANSFER?
There are a few options as to what could be done to solve this issue:
Option 1: Don’t use the blockchain at all, continue to use existing centralized services – aka ‘The World We Live In’
Option 2: Use a centralized service for data storage and file transfer which uses a proprietary blockchain for ownership – aka ‘The Private Blockchain’
Option 3: Use a centralized service for data storage and file transfer which uses a decentralized public blockchain for ownership – aka ‘Amazing if Possible, but Not Feasible’
Option 4: Use your computer for data storage, the internet directly for file transfer and a decentralized public blockchain for ownership – ‘Nice in Theory, Many Security Problems’
Option 5: Use a public blockchain for data storage, file transfer and ownership – aka ‘CryptoKitties’
Option 6: Use a decentralized service for data storage and file transfer which uses a decentralized public blockchain for ownership – aka ‘The Holy Grail’
HOW ELASTOS SOLVES BOTH THE PROBLEMS OF IMMUTABLE OWNERSHIP AND SECURITY OF DATA FILE TRANSFER
I would highly recommend Chico Crypto’s overview video on how Elastos works and Kevin Zhang’s overview of the Elastos Carrier as context for this - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQ70O-nU3UI and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=foHkP19Vp8U – but first some key concepts:
Elastos Mainchain (the ELA Token)
Elastos Sidechains
Elastos Carrier
Elastos Virtual Machines and Run-Time
Are you seeing the matrix yet?..
If not, consider the Pokemon game case. The developer of the game opens up functionality to allow users to buy and sell Pokemon to each other for fiat. Again, why would a developer do this? If the developer gives up ownership of Pokemon to users, it doesn’t make any money off them directly. The developer would do this to benefit indirectly not directly. Adding this functionality would increase engagement and time spent in the game, which it could use to sell users other in-app purchases (Pokeballs etc). However this doesn’t mean the developer is incentivized to incur the additional cost necessary to support that ecosystem with centralized servers hosting all this data etc for secure Pokemon transfer. Ideally the developer could pass this responsibility off to someone else (hint hint the users themselves). Furthermore Pokemon users would want to know their Pokemon are actually theirs and not controlled by a central developer who could take them away at a whim or would disappear if it went bankrupt (back to ownership and security of data to maintain store of value again). Further, they’d want to be able to trade them without slow transaction speeds or crashed networks (CryptoKitties problem). These objectives between both developer and users together rule out Options 1-5 above.
So the developer is left with Option 6, i.e. Elastos: Give users a decentralized ID through the Elastos Mainchain, build a DApp on a sidechain that allows for the Pokemon trading transactions throughput needed, but leverage the Elastos Carrier and Run-Time to host file storage transfer in a secure way that costs the developer nothing and which the users maintain themselves in a decentralized way using their own computing power.
Everyone wins.
submitted by LostPresentation to Elastos [link] [comments]

Can we talk about sharding and decentralized scaling for Raiblocks?

Introduction
This essay contains a healthy dose of math sprinkled with opinion, and I would be the first to admit that my math and personal opinions are sometimes wrong. The beauty of these forums is that it allows us to discuss topics in depth, and with enough group scrutiny we should arrive at the truth. I'm actually a cryptocurrency noob; I've only been looking at it in earnest for a few months, but I've seen enough to conclude that we are in the middle of a revolution, and if I don't intellectually participate somehow, I think I'll regret it for the rest of my life.
Here I analyze sharding in a PoS (proof-of-stake) system, and I will show that not only is sharding good, but I will quantify just how beneficial it is to Tps (transactions per second of the whole network) and mps (messages per second processed by each individual node). I use Raiblocks as my point of departure, regarding it as both my inspiration and my object of critique. But much of the discussion should be relevant to any PoS sharded system.
As you may know, Raiblocks does not employ ledger sharding, but seeing as every wallet is already in its own separate blockchain, it's basically already half-way there! From an engineering perspective, sharding is low-hanging fruit for a block-lattice structure like Raiblock's, especially when you compare it to how complicated it is for single-blockchain currencies.
For the record, I think that Raiblocks will scale just fine according to the current strategy laid out by Colin LeMahieu (u/meor) . By using only full nodes and hosting them in enterprise grade servers (basically datacenters), chances are good that the network will be able to keep up with future Tps (transaction per second) growth. Skeptics have been questioning if people are going to be willing to run nodes pro bono, just to support the network. But I don't doubt that many vendors will jump at the chance. If I'm Amazon, and I've been paying 3% of everything to Visa all these years, when there's an option to basically run my own Visa, I take it.
Payment networks like Paypal have been offering free person-to-person payments for years, eating the costs of processing those transactions in exchange for the opportunity to take their cut when those same people pay online vendors like Amazon. This makes business sense because only a minority of transactions are person-to-person anyway. Most payments result from people buying stuff. So, in a sense, vendors like Amazon have already been subsidizing our free transactions for years. By running Raiblocks nodes, they would still be subsidizing our transactions, but it would be a better deal than what they were getting before.
But have we forgotten something here? Is this really the dream of the instant, universal, decentralized, uncensorable payment network that was promised and only kinda delivered by Bitcoin? Decentralization comes in a spectrum, and while this is certainly better than a private blockchain like Ripple, the future of Raiblocks that we're looking at is a smallish number of supernodes run by a consortium of corporations, governments, and maybe a sprinkling of die-hard fans.
You may ask, but what about the nodes run by you and me on our dinky home computers and cable modem connections? Well, people need to remember that Raiblocks nodes need to talk to each other every time there's a transaction, in order to exchange their votes. The more nodes there are, the more messages have to be received and sent per node per transaction. Having more nodes may improve the decentralization, redudancy, and robustness of the network, but speed it definitely does not. Sure, the SSD of a computer running a mock node will handle 7000 tps, but the real bottleneck is network IO, not disk IO, and how many Comcast internet plans are going to keep up with 7000 x N messages per second, where N is the total number of nodes? If you take the message size to be 260 bytes (credit to u/juanjux's packet-sniffing skills), and the number of nodes to be 1000, that's 1.8 GB/s. Also, if you consider that at least two messages will need to be exchanged with every node (one for the sending wallet, one for the receiving), the network requirements per node becomes 3.6 GB/s. This requirement applies to both the download and upload bandwidth, since in addition to receiving votes from other nodes, you have to announce your own vote to all of them as well. Maybe with multicasting upload requirements can be relaxed, but the overall story is the same: you almost want to convince small players not to run their own nodes, so N doesn't grow too large. Hence, the lack of dividends.
So, if we're resigned to running Raiblocks from corporate supernodes in the future, we might want to ask ourselves, why is decentralization so important anyway? For 99.9% of the cases, I actually think it won't matter. People just want their transactions to complete in a low-cost and timely fashion. And that's why I think Ripple and Raiblocks on their current trajectories have bright futures. They are the petty cash of the future. But for bulk wealth storage, you want decentralization because it makes it hard for any one entity to gain control over your money. No government will be able to step in and freeze your funds if you're Wikileaks or a political dissident when your cryptocurrency network is hosted on millions of computers scattered across the internet. I know the millions number sounds outlandish given that Bitcoin itself has fewer than 12k nodes at present, but that's my vision for the future. And I hope that by the end of this essay, you'll agree it's plausible.
The main benefit of sharding is that it allows nodes to divide the task of hosting the ledger into smaller chunks, reducing the per-node bandwidth requirements to achieve a certain Tps. I'll show that this benefit comes without having to sacrifice ledger redundancy, so long as sufficient nodes can be recruited. One disadvantage that must be noted is the increased overhead of coordinating a large number of nodes subscribed to partial ledgers. At the very least, nodes will need to know how wealthy other nodes are for voting purposes. However, I don't see how an up-to-the-second update of nodal wealth is necessary, since wealth changes on the timescale of months, if not years. It should be sufficient to conduct a role call once every few weeks to update nodes on who the other nodes are and to impart information about wealth and ledger subscriptions. Nonetheless, in principle this overhead means it is still possible to have too many nodes even with sharding.
Raiblocks has a unique advantage over single-chain cryptocoins in that each wallet address is already its own blockchain. This makes it especially amenable to sharding, since each wallet can already be thought of as its own shard! You just need a clever algorithm to decide which nodes subscribe to which wallets. For the purposes of this analysis, I assume a random subscription, so that for example if both you and I subscribe to 10% of the ledger, our subscriptions are probabilistically independent, and we intersect on roughly one percent of the total wallet space. I will also assume that all nodes are identical to each other in bandwidth, though in practice I think each node's owner should decide how much bandwidth he is willing to commit, letting the node's software dynamically adjust its P to maintain the desired bandwidth, where P, or the participation level, is the fraction of the ledger that the node is subscribed to. That way, when the Tps of the network increases over time, each node will use the increasing bandwidth demand as a feedback signal to automatically lower its ledger subscription percentage. Then, all that would be missing for smooth and seamless network growth is a mechanism for ensuring node count growth.
 
Some math
Symbol Definition
mps messages per second received/sent per individual node
N total number of nodes
Tps transactions per second processed by the whole network
R ledger redundancy
P fractional participation level of an individual node
k role call frequency
From the definitions, it should be apparent that
(1) R = NP
There are two types of messages that nodes have to deal with, transaction messages and role-call messages. Transaction messages are those related to updating the ledger when money is sent from one wallet to another. For each transaction, each node presiding over the sending wallet/shard will need to
  1. Broadcast its vote to the other R members of the shard. In the normal case this is a thumbs up signal and no conflict resolution is required.
  2. Receive votes from the other R members of the shard
  3. Broadcast its thumbs up to the R members of the receiving wallet/shard
Each node presiding over the receiving wallet/shard will need to
  1. receive thumbs up signals from the R members of the sending wallet/shard
Therefore, on a macro level upload and download requirements are the same. (Two messages sent, two messages received.)
Role-call messages are those related to disseminating an active directory of which nodes are participating in which wallets and information about nodal wealth. Knowledge about each individual node is broadcasted to the network at a rate of k. I think 10-6 Hz is reasonable, for an update interval of 12 days. For each update, all R nodes presiding over the wallet of the node whose information is being shared will broadcast their view of the node's wealth to all N nodes. Therefore, from the perspective on an individual node:
  1. The rate that role-call messages are received is kRN.
  2. The rate that role-call messages are sent is k(# node wallets presided over)N = k(NP)N = kRN.
Again, upload and download rates are the same. Since upload and download rates are symmetric (which intuitively should be true since every message that is sent needs to be received), the parameter mps can be used equally to describe upload and download bandwidth.
(2) mps = 2R(PTps) + kRN,
where the two terms correspond to the transaction and role-call messages, respectively. Using (1), (2) can be rewritten as
(3) mps = 2R2Tps/N + kRN
Here, we see an interesting relationship between the different message categories and the node count. For a fixed ledger redundancy R and Tps, the number of transaction messages is inversely proportional to the number of nodes. This is intuitive. If all of a sudden there are twice as many nodes and ledger redundancy remains the same, then each node has halved its ledger subscription and only has to deal with half as many transactions. This is the "many hands make light work" phenomenon in action. On the other hand, the number of role-call messages increases in proportion to the number of nodes. The interplay between these two factors determines the sweet spot where mps is at a local minimum. Since the calculus is straightforward, I'll leave it as an exercise to the reader to show that
(4) N_sweetspot = (2RTps/k)1/2
Alternatively, another way of looking things is to consider mps to be fixed. This may be more appropriate if each node is pegged at its committed bandwidth. Then (3) describes the relationship between the ledger redundancy and N. You may ask how this can be reconciled with (1), which seems to imply that N and R are directly proportional, but in this scenario each node is dynamically adjusting its ledger subscription P in response to a changing N to maintain a constant bandwidth mps. In this view, the sweet spot for N is where R is maximized. Interestingly, regardless of which view you take, you arrive at the same expression for the sweet spot (4).
If N < N_sweetspot, then transaction messages dominate the total message count. The system is in the transaction-heavy regime and needs more nodes to help carry the transaction load. If N > N_sweetspot (the node-heavy regime), transaction messages are low, but the number of role-call messages is large and it becomes expensive to keep the whole network in sync. When N = N_sweetspot, the two message categories occur at the same rate, which is easily verified by plugging (4) back into (3). This is when the network is at its most decentralized: message count per node is low while redundancy is high.
Note that N_sweetspot increases as Tps1/2. This implies that, as transaction rate increases, the network will not optimally scale without somehow attracting new people to run nodes. But the incentives can't be too good either, or N may increase beyond N_sweetspot. Ideally, a feedback mechanism using market forces will encourage the network to gravitate towards the sweet spot (more on this later).
One special case is where P=1 and N=R. This is when the network is at its most centralized operating point, with every single node acting as a full node. This minimizes node count for a given redundancy level R and is how Raiblocks is currently designed. I will show that for most real-world numbers, the role-call term is so small as to be negligible, but the mps is many orders of magnitude higher than in the decentralized case because of the large transaction term.
Assuming that we are able to keep the network operating at its sweet spot, by plugging (4) into (3), we arrive at
(5) mps_sweetspot = R3/2(8kTps)1/2
If instead we plug N=R into (3), we arrive at
(6) mps_centralized = 2RTps + kR2
So, we see that in the decentralized case the mps of individual nodes increases as the square root of Tps, a much more sustainable form of scaling than the linear relationship in the centralized case.
And now, the moment we've all been waiting for: plugging various network load scenarios into these formulas and comparing the most decentralized case to the most centralized. Real world operation will be somewhere in between these two extremes.
Fixed parameters
packet size (bytes) 260
k (Hz) 1.00E-06
R 1000
transaction fee ($) $0.01
Tps
0.1 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000
Total monthly dividends $2,592 $25,920 $259,200 $2,592,000 $25,920,000 $259,200,000 $2,592,000,000
Decentralized node requirements
mps (Hz) 28 89 283 894 2,828 8,944 28,284
node traffic (bytes/s) 7.35E+03 2.33E+04 7.35E+04 2.33E+05 7.35E+05 2.33E+06 7.35E+06
N 1.41E+04 4.47E+04 1.41E+05 4.47E+05 1.41E+06 4.47E+06 1.41E+07
P 7.07E-02 2.24E-02 7.07E-03 2.24E-03 7.07E-04 2.24E-04 7.07E-05
Total Network Traffic (bytes/s) 1.04E+08 1.04E+09 1.04E+10 1.04E+11 1.04E+12 1.04E+13 1.04E+14
Yearly Network Traffic (bytes) 3.28E+15 3.28E+16 3.28E+17 3.28E+18 3.28E+19 3.28E+20 3.28E+21
Decentralized node income
monthly per node ($) $0.18 $0.58 $1.83 $5.80 $18.33 $57.96 $183.28
income/GB ($/GB) $0.0096 $0.0096 $0.0096 $0.0096 $0.0096 $0.0096 $0.0096
Centralized node requirements
mps (Hz) 2.01E+02 2.00E+03 2.00E+04 2.00E+05 2.00E+06 2.00E+07 2.00E+08
node traffic (bytes/s) 5.23E+04 5.20E+05 5.20E+06 5.20E+07 5.20E+08 5.20E+09 5.20E+10
N 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000
P 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Total Network Traffic (bytes/s) 5.23E+07 5.20E+08 5.20E+09 5.20E+10 5.20E+11 5.20E+12 5.20E+13
Yearly Network Traffic (bytes) 1.65E+15 1.64E+16 1.64E+17 1.64E+18 1.64E+19 1.64E+20 1.64E+21
Centralized node income
monthly per node ($) $2.59 $25.92 $259.20 $2,592 $25,920 $259,200 $2,592,000
income/GB ($/GB) 0.0191 0.0192 0.0192 0.0192 0.0192 0.0192 0.0192
Yes, I did sneak a transaction fee in there, which is anathema to the Raiblocks way. But I wanted to incentivize people to run nodes. Observe that income per gigabyte remains the same, independent of network Tps, because both total income and total bandwidth scale proportionally to Tps. The decentralized case has half the income/GB because the role-call overhead doubles network activity. In either case, the income per GB depends on transaction fee and is independent of network load.
An interesting number to check online is the price/GB that various ISP's charge. With Google Fiber, it is possible to purchase bandwidth as low as $0.00076 per GB, meaning that it may be possible for nodes to be profitable even if fees were lowered by another order of magnitude. As time progresses, bandwidth costs will only go down, so fees may be able to be lowered even further past that. But because of electricity and other miscellaneous costs, I think a one cent transaction fee is probably pretty close to what people need to incentivize them to run nodes.
With sharding, even many home broadband connections today can feasibly support 100,000 transactions per second, with each node subscribed to about one ten thousandth of the total ledger and handling about 7 MB/s. Getting 14 million people to run nodes may seem like a tall order, but the financial incentives are there. Just look at all the people who have rushed to do GPU mining. Here, bandwidth replaces hashing power as the tool used for mining.
According to a study done by Cisco, yearly internet traffic is projected to reach 3.3 ZB by 2021. Looking at the table, that means if we ever reach 100,000 Tps, Sharded Raiblocks traffic would be equal to the rest of the world combined. Yikes! But if you think about it, nobody along the way is taking on an unbearable load. Users pay low fees for transactions. Nodes get dividends. ISPs get additional customers. The only ones who lose out are Visa, Paypal, and banks.
With such a large network presence, the cultural impact of this coin would be huge. That, in addition to the sheer number of participants running nodes as side businesses would cement this as the coin of the people.
From a macro level, I see no red flags that would indicate this is economically or technically infeasible. Of course, the devil's in the details so I'm posting this to see if people think I'm on the right track. To me, it seems that the possibilities are tantalizing and someone needs to build a test net to see if this idea flies (u/meor, if any of this sounds appealing, are you guys hiring? ;) ).
Musings
I've only scratched the surface and there are many other topics that are worthy of deeper discussion:
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